7,626 research outputs found

    Effect of dithiocarbamate thiram on Wistar rat growth plate and articular cartilage

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    Avaliou-se o efeito do tirame, ditiocarbamato largamente utilizado na agricultura como antif√ļngico e repelente de roedores, na ossifica√ß√£o endocondral de mam√≠feros, usando, como modelo, ratos Wistar. N√£o foram observadas les√Ķes na cartilagem articular, nem nas placas de crescimento, o que pode ser atribu√≠do √† dose utilizada e √† dura√ß√£o do ensaio. A diminui√ß√£o da altura da placa de crescimento nos animais aos quais foi administrado o tirame parece traduzir o atraso verificado no crescimento em geral, e n√£o um efeito espec√≠fico na cartilagem, uma vez que as diferentes zonas da placa epifis√°ria mantiveram as propor√ß√Ķes dos animais do grupo-controle. Embora n√£o tenham sido verificados, no presente trabalho, os efeitos registrados para outras esp√©cies nos tecidos cartilaginosos, sugere-se a avalia√ß√£o dos efeitos cr√≥nicos do tirame no crescimento e no desenvolvimento dos ossos longos em mam√≠feros

    Aloenxertos criopreservados no tratamento de defeitos osteocartilagíneos

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    A repara√ß√£o cir√ļrgica dos defeitos da cartilagem articular representa uma das situa√ß√Ķes mais dif√≠ceis de tratar em Ortopedia. Os aloenxertos osteocartilag√≠neos devem ser reservados para a reconstru√ß√£o de defeitos significativos envolvendo cartilagem e osso (> 3 cm de di√Ęmetro e 1 cm de profundidade), isto √©, nas les√Ķes demasiado extensas para serem corrigidas atrav√©s de outras t√©cnicas. Os aloenxertos osteocartilag√≠neos criopreservados apresentam vantagens em rela√ß√£o aos frescos, que incluem uma maior seguran√ßa microbiol√≥gica, menor capacidade imunog√©nica ligada ao tecido √≥sseo e est√£o dispon√≠veis em maior n√ļmero. No entanto, os aloenxertos osteocartilag√≠neos frescos mant√™m uma maior viabilidade condrocit√°ria e, por isso, oferecem um melhor desempenho cl√≠nico. Embora permita recuperar um maior n√ļmero de condr√≥citos vivos, a utiliza√ß√£o de crioprotectores est√° ainda longe de originar a protec√ß√£o completa e eficaz de todos os condr√≥citos presentes na cartilagem articular, o que compromete significativamente o desempenho cl√≠nico a m√©dio ou a longo termo dos aloenxertos osteocartilag√≠neos criopreservados. A combina√ß√£o de um potente agente crioprotector como parece ser a arbutina, com meios mec√Ęnicos capazes de exercer uma press√£o adequada poder√° ser a chave para se alcan√ßar uma percentagem significativa de condr√≥citos vivos ap√≥s o processo de descongela√ß√£o da cartilagem criopreservada e, assim, poder√° assegurar a efic√°cia cl√≠nica, a m√©dio e longo prazos, dos aloenxertos osteocartilag√≠neos criopreservados

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation

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    Esta revis√£o da literatura descreve o processo do transplante aut√≥logo de condr√≥citos em todas as suas etapas, indica√ß√Ķes cl√≠nicas, t√©cnica operat√≥ria, t√©cnica laboratorial, reabilita√ß√£o e resultados cl√≠nicos. Desde 1994, quando a t√©cnica de ACI foi descrita pela primeira vez, este procedimento foi aprimorado e tornou-se uma das mais importantes alternativas cir√ļrgicas para o tratamento das les√Ķes condrais do joelho. Nivel de Evid√™ncia II, Prospectivo Comparativo.This literature review article describes the autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) process - its stages, clinical indications, surgical technique, laboratory protocol, rehabilitation and clinical outcomes. Since 1994, when the ACI was described for the first time, the procedure has improved to become one of the most important surgical alternatives for the treatment of chondral lesions of the knee

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation: series of 3 cases

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    A cartilagem hialina recobre as superf√≠cies articulares e tem um papel importante na redu√ß√£o da fric√ß√£o e da carga mec√Ęnica das articula√ß√Ķes sinoviais, como o joelho. Este tecido n√£o √© suprido de vasos, nervos ou circula√ß√£o linf√°tica, o que pode ser uma das raz√Ķes pela qual a cartilagem articular tem uma p√©ssima capacidade de cicatriza√ß√£o. As les√Ķes condrais, quando atingem o osso subcondral (les√£o osteocondral), n√£o cicatrizam e podem progredir para artrose com o passar do tempo. Em pacientes jovens, o tratamento dos defeitos condrais do joelho ainda √© um desafio, principalmente as les√Ķes maiores de 4cm. Uma das op√ß√Ķes de tratamento nesses pacientes √© o transplante aut√≥logo de condr√≥citos, que por n√£o violar o osso subcondral e por reparar o defeito com tecido semelhante √† cartilagem hialina, teria a vantagem te√≥rica de ser mais biol√≥gico e mecanicamente superior, quando comparado a outras t√©cnicas. Descreveremos nesse artigo a experi√™ncia do Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Cl√≠nicas da Universidade de S√£o Paulo (IOT-HCFMUSP) com o transplante aut√≥logo de condr√≥citos (ACI), atrav√©s do relato de tr√™s casos.Hyaline cartilage in the surface of synovial joints plays an important role in lowering stress and attrition in joints such as the knee. This tissue has no blood vessels, nerves, nor lymphatic drainage, which in part explains why articular cartilage has such poor capacity for healing. Chondral lesions reaching the subchondral bone (osteochondral lesions) do not heal and may progress to osteoarthritis as time passes. In young patients, treatment of such defects is challenging, especially in lesions larger than 4 cm. One option in young adults is the autologous chondrocyte implantation, capable of filling the defect with tissue similar to hyaline cartilage without violating the subchondral bone. Theoretically, it has biological and mechanical advantages over other surgical options. In this paper, we describe the experience with this procedure in a series of 3 cases at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology, University of S√£o Paulo

    Histologic study of ossification of the thyroid cartilage

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    The process of ossification and formation of bone marrow occurs in the larynx cartilages with age. The knowledge of this change is important for differentiation with cartilage invasion by cancer. AIM: Cranial and caudal segments of the thyroid cartilage were obtained from adult male larynges in order to evaluate comparatively the histological changes regarding to the ossification and the bone marrow formation. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Seven male adult larynges were obtained from cadavers underwent necrological examination in Posto M√©dico-Legal de Santos, da Pol√≠cia Civil do Estado de S√£o Paulo. The ages ranged from 39 to 60, with median of 53. There were no available data about tobacco and alcohol consumption. The specimens underwent decalcification and stained with H-E. Histometry was performed for quantitative analysis of the ossification while the bone marrow was analyzed according to qualitative criteria (presence or absence). RESULTS: The average ossification was 42.8% and the bone marrow presence was observed in 57.1% in the cranial segments. In the caudal segments, the average ossification was 72.8%, and the bone marrow was detected in 87.5% of the specimens. CONCLUSION: The ossification in the thyroid cartilage and the bone marrow formation increase and occur earlier moving downward from the cranial to the caudal aspects.Com o passar da idade, ocorrem progressivamente ossifica√ß√£o e forma√ß√£o de medula √≥ssea nas cartilagens lar√≠ngeas. O conhecimento dessas modifica√ß√Ķes √© importante para a diferencia√ß√£o com invas√£o por c√Ęncer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar comparativamente as por√ß√Ķes cranial e caudal da cartilagem tire√≥idea quanto a altera√ß√Ķes histol√≥gicas em indiv√≠duos adultos do sexo masculino, observando a ossifica√ß√£o e a forma√ß√£o de medula √≥ssea. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E M√ČTODO: Foram estudadas 7 laringes obtidas de cad√°veres do sexo masculino submetidos a exame necrol√≥gico no Posto M√©dico-Legal de Santos, da Pol√≠cia Civil do Estado de S√£o Paulo. A idade variou de 39 a 60 anos, com mediana de 53. N√£o se teve acesso √† informa√ß√£o de h√°bito de tabagismo e etilismo. Os esp√©cimes foram descalcificados e corados pela hematoxilina-eosina. A ossifica√ß√£o foi estudada pelo m√©todo histom√©trico baseado na estereologia e a presen√ßa de medula √≥ssea foi realizada de forma qualitativa (presen√ßa ou aus√™ncia). RESULTADOS: Nos segmentos craniais, notamos uma m√©dia de 42,8% de ossifica√ß√£o e a presen√ßa de medula √≥ssea em 57,1%. Nos segmentos caudais, a m√©dia de ossifica√ß√£o foi de 72,8%, com medula √≥ssea em 87,5%. CONCLUS√ÉO: A ossifica√ß√£o da cartilagem tire√≥idea e a forma√ß√£o de medula √≥ssea s√£o mais intensas e precoces na sua topografia cranial.Hospital Heli√≥polisUniversidade Federal de S√£o Paulo (UNIFESP) Escola Paulista de MedicinaHospital Ana Costa Servi√ßo de Anatomia Patol√≥gicaUniversidade de S√£o PauloUNIFESP, EPMSciEL

    Chondromalacia patellae: comparison of high-field strength versus low-field strength magnetic resonance imaging findings

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    OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of low-field-strength and high-field-strength magnetic resonance imaging equipments for evaluation of the patella articular cartilage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was developed using GRE 2D, GRE 3D, FSE T2, STIR sequences (low-field) and TSE T2 SPIR sequence. Each sequence has been separately analyzed for evaluation of the cartilage without knowledge of other sequences results or any patients data; the lesion was assigned a grade from 0 to 3 and had its location defined. Agreement and disagreement results were analyzed by Kappa and McNemar tests. RESULTS: Medial facet has presented low agreement index and disagreements showed to be significantly overestimated. Lateral facet has presented a reasonable agreement index and disagreement index was not significant. Medial ridge has presented a reasonable agreement index and disagreement index has showed to be underestimated. CONCLUSION: The STIR sequence versus TSE T2 SPIR sequence has presented the higher agreement index. High grade lesions are better characterized by low-field-strength magnetic resonance imaging equipment sequences. Areas of increased signal intensity make difficult the study of the patella medial facet cartilage in low-field-strength equipment.OBJETIVO: Comparar os aparelhos de resson√Ęncia magn√©tica de baixo campo e de alto campo para estudo da cartilagem articular da patela. MATERIAIS E M√ČTODOS: Foi realizado estudo usando as seq√ľ√™ncias GRE 2D, GRE 3D, FSE T2 e STIR (baixo campo) e TSE T2 SPIR. Cada seq√ľ√™ncia foi analisada separadamente para o estudo da cartilagem, sem o conhecimento dos dados do paciente e do resultado das outras seq√ľ√™ncias, sendo atribu√≠do grau de les√£o de 0 a 3 e descrita a sua localiza√ß√£o. Os resultados de concord√Ęncia e discord√Ęncia foram analisados pelos testes de Kappa e McNemar. RESULTADOS: Na faceta medial houve baixas concord√Ęncias e as discord√Ęncias mostraram significativa superestima√ß√£o. Na faceta lateral houve boas concord√Ęncias e as discord√Ęncias n√£o foram significativas. No √°pice houve boas concord√Ęncias e as discord√Ęncias mostraram significativa subestima√ß√£o. CONCLUS√ÉO: A seq√ľ√™ncia STIR teve a melhor concord√Ęncia com a seq√ľ√™ncia TSE T2 SPIR. Les√Ķes de alto grau s√£o mais bem caracterizadas pelas seq√ľ√™ncias do aparelho de baixo campo. √Āreas de aumento de sinal dificultam o estudo da cartilagem da faceta medial da patela no aparelho de baixo campo.Universidade Federal de S√£o Paulo (UNIFESP) Departamento de Diagn√≥stico por ImagemUniversidade Santo Amaro Faculdade de MedicinaUniversidade Federal de S√£o Paulo (UNIFESP) Departamento de Ortopedia e TraumatologiaUniversidade Federal de SergipeUniversidade Santo AmaroUNIFESP, Depto. de Diagn√≥stico por ImagemUNIFESP, Depto. de Ortopedia e TraumatologiaSciEL

    Eversion of the Third Eyelid Cartilage in a Cat

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    Background: Eversion of the cartilage of the third eyelid is a rare congenital disease in cats. It is caused by the anterior eversion of the cartilage edge of the third eyelid. Clinical signs may be associated with secondary keratoconjunctivitis, third eyelid gland protrusion, and ocular surface irritation. The diagnosis is made by ophthalmic examination, and treatment consists of surgical resection of the everted cartilage portion. The goal of the present study was to report a case of eversion of third eyelid cartilage in a cat, given that it is an unusual abnormality in this animal species, and an important differential diagnosis to be considered in the disorders of the third eyelid.Case: A 6-year-old neutered female Persian cat was presented with a presumptive diagnosis of protrusion of the third eyelid gland, history of ocular irritation, and epiphora in the left eye. The disorder had been intermittently present since the animal was 1-year-old, with spontaneous disappearance after approximately 15 days. The owner related the reappearance of the disorder to stressful situations, with no previous history of trauma or other ocular alteration. During the ophthalmic examination, suspended solute was observed through biomiscroscopic examination in both eyes, as well as an increase in volume of the third eyelid in the left eye, without other changes. A thorough examination, under general anesthesia, indicated the protruding volume of the cartilage of the everted third eyelid. The third eyelid was pleated in its upper portion, demonstrating that the cartilage of the third eyelid was folded instead of following the curvature of the ocular surface. Under general anesthesia, the cartilage was partially removed through two parallel incisions on the bulbar conjunctival surface, divulsioning 5 mm in length in the vertical portion of the cartilage in a ‚ÄėT‚Äô shape, and separating the conjunctiva from the underlying cartilage. The everted portion of cartilage, once removed, was in fact considered curved in its most dorsal portion, in a manner similar to what was reported in dogs. The third eyelid returned to its anatomically correct position after removing the deformed portion of the cartilage. The patient was treated postoperatively with topical drops of tobramycin and dexamethasone 3 mg/mL + 1 mg/mL (Tobradex¬ģ), and lubricant based on sodium hyaluronate 2 mg/mL (Hylo¬ģ-Gel). No complications were observed in the postoperative consultations during a 8 month follow-up.Discussion: It is suspected that the eversion of the third eyelid cartilage occurs due to a differential growth rate between the posterior and anterior portions of the cartilage; even though other theories have been proposed. The cartilage of the third eyelid can commonly be everted in large dog breeds, being classified as a disease of hereditary character. However, it has rarely been reported in cats, which can be explained by the more elastic histological constitution when compared to that of dogs. The surgical procedure performed in the present case of eversion of the third eyelid cartilage in a cat was in accordance with that described in the literature. Complete recovery of the third eyelid function was achieved, and the patient's ocular health was preserved. The reported case showed a favorable prognosis after diagnosis, associated with correct treatment and postoperative management. Although there was an effective recovery of the third eyelid, the issues related to the pathophysiology of cartilage eversion are unknown. This way, further studies are necessary to elucidate its etiology

    Compara√ß√£o entre a resson√Ęncia nuclear magn√©tica e o exame cl√≠nico, no diagn√≥stico de les√Ķes condrais e meniscais em pacientes submeidos a v√≠deo-artroscopia do joelho.

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    Trabalho de Conclus√£o de Curso - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ci√™ncias da Sa√ļde, Departamento de Cl√≠nica Cir√ļrgica, Curso de Medicina, Florian√≥polis, 200

    Sistema Intensivo de Su√≠nos Criados ao Ar Livre: metodologia e recomenda√ß√Ķes para destrompe de reprodutores.

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