1,305,056 research outputs found

    Inborn errors of type I IFN immunity in patients with life-threatening COVID-19

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    Clinical outcome upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ranges from silent infection to lethal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have found an enrichment in rare variants predicted to be loss-of-function (LOF) at the 13 human loci known to govern Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity to influenza virus in 659 patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia relative to 534 subjects with asymptomatic or benign infection. By testing these and other rare variants at these 13 loci, we experimentally defined LOF variants underlying autosomal-recessive or autosomal-dominant deficiencies in 23 patients (3.5%) 17 to 77 years of age. We show that human fibroblasts with mutations affecting this circuit are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. Inborn errors of TLR3-and IRF7-dependent type I IFN immunity can underlie life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with no prior severe infection

    a case–case study based on electronic health records

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    Funding Information: The acquisition of sequencing equipment and reagents used in this study by the Instituto Nacional de SaĂșde Doutor Ricardo Jorge was partially funded by the HERA project (grant no. 2021/PHF/23776), supported by the European Commission through the European Centre for Disease Control, and also partially funded by the Genome PT project (grant no. POCI‐01‐0145‐FEDER‐022184), supported by COMPETE 2020–Operational Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalisation, Lisboa Portugal Regional Operational Programme, Algarve Portugal Regional Operational, under the Portugal 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund, and by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation. The Algarve Biomedical Center Laboratory received public funding through the Project ALG‐D2‐2021‐06 Variants Screen in Southern Portugal–Monitoring Variants of Concern in Southern Portugal and the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation national support through the Comprehensive Health Research Center (grant no. UIDP/04923/2020). Funding information Funding Information: The acquisition of sequencing equipment and reagents used in this study by the Instituto Nacional de SaĂșde Doutor Ricardo Jorge was partially funded by the HERA project (grant no. 2021/PHF/23776), supported by the European Commission through the European Centre for Disease Control, and also partially funded by the Genome PT project (grant no. POCI-01-0145-FEDER-022184), supported by COMPETE 2020–Operational Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalisation, Lisboa Portugal Regional Operational Programme, Algarve Portugal Regional Operational, under the Portugal 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund, and by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation. The Algarve Biomedical Center Laboratory received public funding through the Project ALG-D2-2021-06 Variants Screen in Southern Portugal–Monitoring Variants of Concern in Southern Portugal and the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation national support through the Comprehensive Health Research Center (grant no. UIDP/04923/2020). Publisher Copyright: © 2023 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Background: Information on vaccine effectiveness in a context of novel variants of concern (VOC) emergence is of key importance to inform public health policies. This study aimed to estimate a measure of comparative vaccine effectiveness between Omicron (BA.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2 and sub-lineages) VOC according to vaccination exposure (primary or booster). Methods: We developed a case–case study using data on RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2-positive cases notified in Portugal during Weeks 49–51, 2021. To obtain measure of comparative vaccine effectiveness, we compared the odds of vaccination in Omicron cases versus Delta using logistic regression adjusted for age group, sex, region, week of diagnosis, and laboratory of origin. Results: Higher odds of vaccination were observed in cases infected by Omicron VOC compared with Delta VOC cases for both complete primary vaccination (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8 to 2.4) and booster dose (OR = 5.2; 95% CI: 3.1 to 8.8), equivalent to reduction of vaccine effectiveness from 44.7% and 92.8%, observed against infection with Delta, to −6.0% (95% CI: 29.2% to 12.7%) and 62.7% (95% CI: 35.7% to 77.9%), observed against infection with Omicron, for complete primary vaccination and booster dose, respectively. Conclusion: Consistent reduction in vaccine-induced protection against infection with Omicron was observed. Complete primary vaccination may not be protective against SARS-CoV-2 infection in regions where Omicron variant is dominant.publishersversionpublishe

    COVID-19: Lessons from the ‘euro crisis’. EPC Discussion Paper 16 April 2020

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    The coronavirus is an unprecedented external shock that is challenging the EU and its member states. The crisis is fundamental, posing a dramatic threat to public health and the life of citizens. Everyone is affected by the imposition of restrictive measures aiming to contain the spread of the virus. Efforts to flatten the curve have severely hit our economies and will require unparalleled monetary and fiscal measures by central banks and governments

    COVID-19: a turning point for the EU? EPC Discussion Paper 16 April 2020

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    What long-term lessons can we draw from the corona crisis? Which ones must we draw? Many say that our way of life has changed so much that there will be a time before and a time after this crisis. For me, there is a distinction between values and behaviours. There is, undoubtedly, a kind of togetherness between people, grown out of the feeling that we are all in the same boat. A lot of creative energy has been released. Digitisation has prevented us from becoming alienated from each other. Social media have shown that they don’t just polarise. Their positive uses have made the new media truly social. We have also learned that we can meet remotely, collaborate and be productive

    The association between high risk of sleep apnea, comorbidities, and risk of COVID-19 : a population-based international harmonized study

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    Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of severe COVID-19; however, the level of potential modulation has not yet been established. The objective of the study was to determine the association between high risk of OSA, comorbidities, and increased risk for COVID-19, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional population-based web survey in adults in 14 countries/regions. The survey included sociodemographic variables and comorbidities. Participants were asked questions about COVID-19, hospitalization, and ICU treatment. Standardized questionnaire (STOP questionnaire for high risk of OSA) was included. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted adjusting for various factors. Results Out of 26,539 respondents, 20,598 (35.4% male) completed the survey. Mean age and BMI of participants were 41.5 +/- 16.0 years and 24.0 +/- 5.0 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed OSA was 4.1% and high risk of OSA was 9.5%. We found that high risk of OSA (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.47) and diabetes (aOR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.48) were associated with reporting of a COVID-19 diagnosis. High risk for OSA (aOR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.10-4.01), being male (aOR: 2.82, 95% CI: 1.55-5.12), having diabetes (aOR: 3.93, 95% CI: 1.70-9.12), and having depression (aOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.15-4.77) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization or ICU treatment. Conclusions Participants at high risk of OSA had increased odds of having COVID-19 and were two times more likely to be hospitalized or treated in ICU.Peer reviewe

    Covid-19 Pandemic –Our Response, Our Future. Singapore EU Centre Working Paper 14th April 2020

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    We are facing an unprecedented challenge of containing the coronavirus, and the fear and uncertainty that it is spreading. How we respond to this challenge will shape the future not only of our individual societies and nations but also the wider regional and globalorder
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