8,016 research outputs found

    Complete Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Strains 1303 and ECC-1470 Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

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    Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E. coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection

    Sensitivity Studies of Forty-Four Strains Mastitis Producing Organisms to Chloramphenicol

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    The purpose of this investigation was to obtain an indication of the possible value of chloramphenicol in the treatment of bovine mastitis. In vitro tests were run to determine what concentrations of the antibiotic are effective in inhibiting the growth of organisms isolated from field cases of bovine mastitis

    Proteomic and metabolomic studies on milk during bovine mastitis

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    The principal objectives of the study presented in this thesis were to study the changes of milk proteomes, peptidomes and metabolomes during the course of bovine mastitis in comparison with normal milk samples and to discover new bovine mastitis biomarkers using various modern and up-to-date methodologies such as proteomics, peptidomics and metabolomics. Bovine mastitis caused by bacterial infection of the mammary gland of dairy cows is often associated with loss of milk production due to a reduction in milk composition and quality which in turns, lead to negative economic impact on dairy industry. Two important acute phase proteins (APPs) which serve as valuable biomarkers in bovine mastitis were investigated in every chapter using developed and validated enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for bovine milk haptoglobin and commercially available ELISA for bovine milk serum amyloid A3 (M-SAA3). These APPs were quantified alongside somatic cell counts (SCC) and California Mastitis Test (CMT) to confirm the disease status of each animal used in this study. Proteomic methodologies were applied including 1D gel electrophoresis, 2D gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF analysis and difference gel electrophoresis to investigate the changes of milk proteome in both subclinical and clinical mastitic milk samples in comparison with healthy milk samples. However these investigations did not reveal novel biomarkers for mastitis. Next, peptidomic methodologies were used to study the changes in milk peptidome and to detect the presence of any significant disease biomarkers in the presence of bovine mastitis by using CE-MS and LC-MS/MS. A total of 31 and 14 polypeptides can be used to discriminate control from infected groups and E. coli from S. aureus infected groups respectively. Lastly, metabolomic methodology was applied with an intention to study the changes in milk metabolome and ultimately to detect the presence of novel biomarkers in bovine mastitis. Di- and tri-peptides were found higher in S. aureus than in E. coli infected groups and based on metabolic pathways, arachidonic, arginine and galactose metabolites were seen increased in mastitic milk samples in comparison to healthy milk samples. Overall, the findings detailed in this thesis indicate that the use of advanced proteomic and metabolomic methodologies could deliver on their promise of the discovery of potential significant bovine mastitis biomarkers. Further studies are needed for validation of these proposed biomarkers and it was hoped that better prevention and treatment methods for bovine mastitis can be achieved in the future

    Effect of the essential oil of Minthostachys verticillata (Griseb.) epling and limonene on biofilm production in pathogens causing bovine mastitis

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    Bovine mastitis causes large annual economic losses around the world. Different microorganisms are associated with the disease. The capacity of pathogens to adhere to bovine mammary epithelial cells is associated with biofilm production which leads to antibiotic resistance. Research is now leading to search alternative control methods and medicinal plants constitute a natural, safe, effective and inexpensive option. Minthostachys verticillata is an autochthonous medicinal plant of Argentina with multiple ethnobotanical properties. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the essential oil (EO) of this species and limonene, one of its compounds, inhibited the growth of mastitis pathogens. The objective of the present work was to determine the inhibitory effect of the essential oil of M. verticillata and limonene, on biofilm formation and on mature biofilm produced by pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis. Time kill assay and bacterial lysis were also determined. Furthermore, RAPD-PCR assays were performed to determine changes in bacterial DNA after EO and limonene exposition. Bacterial isolates were identified as Escherichia coli (EC3 and EC9), Bacillus pumilus (BP5, BP6, and BP7) and Enterococcus faecium (EF1) by rRNA 16S sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS. All the strains were able to form biofilm. Addition of both lactose and sucrose did not affect biofilm production. MIC values for EO were 3.6 mg/ml for E. faecium; 0.9 mg/ml for E. coli (EC3), 14.5 mg/ml for E. coli (EC9), 1.8 mg/ml for B. pumilus (BP7), 3.63 mg/ml for B. pumilus (BP6) and 29.0 mg/ml for B. pumilus (BP7). MIC values for limonene were 6.6 mg/ml for B. pumilus (BP6) and 105 mg/ml for B. pumilus (BP5). These results demonstrated that EO was more effective than limonene, showing also bactericidal action against E. faecium (minimal inhibitory concentration (MBC) = 29.0 mg/ml). This result was corroborated by time of death assay, observing a cell decrease after at 6 h, and then by bacterial lysis assay. Both EO and limonene affected mature biofilm of isolated strains. The results contribute to the study of EO and limonene which may serve as a therapy against bovine mastitis pathogens inhibiting the development of pathogenic bacteria.Fil: Cerioli, Maria Florencia. Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Moliva, Melina Vanesa. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto; ArgentinaFil: Cariddi, Laura Noelia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto; ArgentinaFil: Reinoso, Elina Beatríz. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto; Argentin

    Bovine Mastitis

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    Mastitis in dairy cattle is responsible for greater economic loss to the dairyman than any other disease. These losses are represented by loss in quantity of milk produced, lower quality of product and loss through sacrifice of animals sold to market because of severe mastitis. Until the last few years too little attention had been given to this important disease. The fact that there was no effective treatment for the condition was no doubt chiefly responsible. The discovery and development of new drugs during the last few years has found some of these agents to be effective against certain agents causing bovine mastitis. As a result considerable study and research is being conducted on this important problem

    Bovine Mastitis

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    Mastitis in dairy cattle is responsible for greater economic loss to the dairyman than any other disease. These losses are represented by loss in quantity of milk produced, lower quality of product and loss through sacrifice of animals sold to market because of severe mastitis. Until the last few years too little attention had been given to this important disease. The fact that there was no effective treatment for the condition was no doubt chiefly responsible. The discovery and development of new drugs during the last few years has found some of these agents to be effective against certain agents causing bovine mastitis. As a result considerable study and research is being conducted on this important problem

    Characterization of Antibiotic and Biocide Resistance Genes and Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus Species Associated with Bovine Mastitis in Rwanda

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    The present study was conducted from July to August 2018 on milk samples taken at dairy farms in the Northern Province and Kigali District of Rwanda in order to identify Staphylococcus spp. associated with bovine intramammary infection. A total of 161 staphylococcal isolates originating from quarter milk samples of 112 crossbred dairy cattle were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and isolates were examined for the presence of various resistance genes. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were also analyzed for the presence of virulence factors, genotyped by spa typing and further phenotypically subtyped for capsule expression using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Selected S. aureus were characterized using DNA microarray technology, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and whole-genome sequencing. All mecA-positive staphylococci were further genotyped using dru typing. In total, 14 different staphylococcal species were detected, with S. aureus being most prevalent (26.7%), followed by S. xylosus (22.4%) and S. haemolyticus (14.9%). A high number of isolates was resistant to penicillin and tetracycline. Various antimicrobial and biocide resistance genes were detected. Among S. aureus, the Panton‚ÄďValentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, as well as bovine leukocidin (LukM/LukF-P83) genes, were detected in two and three isolates, respectively, of which two also carried the toxic shock syndrome toxin gene tsst-1 bovine variant. t1236 was the predominant spa type. FTIR-based capsule serotyping revealed a high prevalence of non-encapsulated S. aureus isolates (89.5%). The majority of the selected S. aureus isolates belonged to clonal complex (CC) 97 which was determined using DNA microarray based assignment. Three new MLST sequence types were detected

    Udder health concepts that comply with organic principles - how to reduce therapies?

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    Both the consumers and the legislators expect products from healthy organic livestock. Consequently, keeping farm animals healthy has the highest priority in veterinary work on organic farms. Different Swiss FiBL projects on bovine mastitis in recent years were aimed at health concepts that comply with organic livestock production principles. This paper summarises some of the work carried out

    An update on environmental mastitis: challenging perceptions

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    Environmental mastitis is the most common and costly form of mastitis in modern dairy herds where contagious transmission of intramammary pathogens is controlled through implementation of standard mastitis prevention programmes. Environmental mastitis can be caused by a wide range of bacterial species, and binary classification of species as contagious or environmental is misleading, particularly for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and other streptococcal species, including Streptococcus agalactiae. Bovine faeces, the indoor environment and used pasture are major sources of mastitis pathogens, including Escherichia coli and S. uberis. A faeco-oral transmission cycle may perpetuate and amplify the presence of such pathogens, including Klebsiella pneumoniae and S. agalactiae. Because of societal pressure to reduce reliance on antimicrobials as tools for mastitis control, management of environmental mastitis will increasingly need to be based on prevention. This requires a reduction in environmental exposure through bedding, pasture and pre-milking management and enhancement of the host response to bacterial challenge. Efficacious vaccines are available to reduce the impact of coliform mastitis, but vaccine development for gram-positive mastitis has not progressed beyond the ‚Äúpromising‚ÄĚ stage for decades. Improved diagnostic tools to identify causative agents and transmission patterns may contribute to targeted use of antimicrobials and intervention measures. The most important tool for improved uptake of known mastitis prevention measures is communication. Development of better technical or biological tools for management of environmental mastitis must be accompanied by development of appropriate incentives and communication strategies for farmers and veterinarians, who may be confronted with government-mandated antimicrobial use targets if voluntary reduction is not implemented
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