183,071 research outputs found

    The devices, experimental scaffolds, and biomaterials ontology (DEB): a tool for mapping, annotation, and analysis of biomaterials' data

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    The size and complexity of the biomaterials literature makes systematic data analysis an excruciating manual task. A practical solution is creating databases and information resources. Implant design and biomaterials research can greatly benefit from an open database for systematic data retrieval. Ontologies are pivotal to knowledge base creation, serving to represent and organize domain knowledge. To name but two examples, GO, the gene ontology, and CheBI, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology and their associated databases are central resources to their respective research communities. The creation of the devices, experimental scaffolds, and biomaterials ontology (DEB), an open resource for organizing information about biomaterials, their design, manufacture, and biological testing, is described. It is developed using text analysis for identifying ontology terms from a biomaterials gold standard corpus, systematically curated to represent the domain's lexicon. Topics covered are validated by members of the biomaterials research community. The ontology may be used for searching terms, performing annotations for machine learning applications, standardized meta-data indexing, and other cross-disciplinary data exploitation. The input of the biomaterials community to this effort to create data-driven open-access research tools is encouraged and welcomed.Preprin

    Editorial: biodegradable materials

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    This Special Issue “Biodegradable Materials” features research and review papers concerning recent advances on the development, synthesis, testing and characterisation of biomaterials. These biomaterials, derived from natural and renewable sources, offer a potential alternative to existing non-biodegradable materials with application to the food and biomedical industries amongst many others. In this Special Issue, the work is expanded to include the combined use of fillers that can enhance the properties of biomaterials prepared as films. The future application of these biomaterials could have an impact not only at the economic level, but also for the improvement of the environment

    Geometric bionics: Lotus effect helps polystyrene nanotube films get good blood compatibility

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    Various biomaterials have been widely used for manufacturing biomedical applications including artificial organs, medical devices and disposable clinical apparatus, such as vascular prostheses, blood pumps, artificial kidney, artificial hearts, dialyzers and plasma separators, which could be used in contact with blood^1^. However, the research tasks of improving hemocompatibility of biomaterials have been carrying out with the development of biomedical requirements^2^. Since the interactions that lead to surface-induced thrombosis occurring at the blood-biomaterial interface become a reason of familiar current complications with grafts therapy, improvement of the blood compatibility of artificial polymer surfaces is, therefore a major issue in biomaterials science^3^. After decades of focused research, various approaches of modifying biomaterial surfaces through chemical or biochemical methods to improve their hemocompatibility were obtained^1^. In this article, we report that polystyrene nanotube films with morphology similar to the papilla on lotus leaf can be used as blood-contacted biomaterials by virtue of Lotus effect^4^. Clearly, this idea, resulting from geometric bionics that mimicking the structure design of lotus leaf, is very novel technique for preparation of hemocompatible biomaterials

    Biomedicals from Bone

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    The realm of biomaterials, under which biomedical materials can be categorised, has a broad definition base and recognises materials that are synthesized or naturally sourced. Biomaterials are normally those that come into contact with live tissue and physiological fluids. They have applications as prostheses to replace lost function of joints or to replace bone tissue, for diagnosing medical conditions, as a form of therapy, or as a storage unit. The diversity and scope of biomaterials science research, and especially its application to the improvement of trauma, disease, and congenital defects in the human condition, are making this branch of science increasingly dominant and topical in many countries. An exciting aspect is that such research is interdisciplinary. The varied problems of the human condition that biomaterials research addresses occupy the efforts not only of medical doctors who act as the end users of such technology, but also those of chemists, physicists, engineers, and biologists in creating the technological advances. Chemistry, in particular, plays a major role in such research, after all it is the foundation stone on which biomaterials polymer science and biomedical scaffold materials are built

    Innovative approach for the in vitro research on biomedical scaffolds designed and customized with CAD-CAM technology

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    Studies on biomaterials involve assays aimed to assess the interactions between the biomaterial and the cells seeded on its surface. However, the morphology of biomaterials is heterogeneous and it could be tricky to standardize the results among different biomaterials and the classic plastic plates. In this light, we decided to create, by means of computer-aided design (CAD) technology, a standardized sample model, with equal shape and sizes, able to fit into a classic shape of a 96-wells tissue culture plate (TCP)

    Plasma-inspired biomaterials

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    The first questions which arise when one looks at the title of this special issue are what are plasma-inspired biomaterials, and what is this Special Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (JPhysD) all about? Peculiar as it may seem, from a philosophical point of view 'inspiration' is something that influences by idea or is a good idea that connects two at first glance opposite things—plasma and biomaterials. On the one hand, plasma as a discharge state of the gas is considered nowadays as a cutting edge tool which can manipulate objects at the atomic or molecular scale (figure 1). On the other hand, biomaterials are substances that are engineered to possess certain properties which can control the interactions with components of living systems, inducing favourable response from the biological entities, and as such can direct the course of a therapy or diagnostic procedure [1]. In this respect, plasmas can be used to initiating even more favourable or selective responses, making the biomaterials even more suitable for their interaction biological entitiesPeer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Biomaterials. The Behavior of Stainless Steel as a Biomaterial

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    The biomaterials belong to the broad range of biocompatible chemical substances (sometimes even an element), which can be used for a period of time to treat or replace a tissue, organ or function of the human body. These materials bring many advantages in the diagnosis, prevention and medical therapy, reducing downtime for patients, restoring their biological functions, improving hospital management. The market in Romania sells a wide range of biomaterials for dental, cardiovascular medicine, renal, etc. Scientific research contributes to the discovery of new biomaterials or testing known biomaterials, for finding new applications. The paper exemplifies this contribution by presenting the testing of passive stainless steel behaviour in albumin solution using technique of cyclic voltammetry. It was shown that passivation contribute to increased stability of stainless steel implants to corrosive body fluids.biological environment, biomaterials, corrosion, cyclic voltammetry, stainless steel.

    Metals used in maxillofacial surgery

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    The goal of maxillofacial surgery is to restore the shape and functionality of maxillofacial region. In the past years, there has been a tremendous progress in this field because of significant advances in biotechnology that provided innovative biomaterials to efficiently reconstruct the maxillofacial injured region. By using appropriate selection of the implant biomaterial, it is possible to reconstruct the native tissue, both in form and function. The ideal biomaterial should mimic native tissues regarding density, strength, and modulus of elasticity. Autografts are currently the gold standard for replacement of missing tissues, but synthetic biomaterials have been widely used because they eliminate the discomfort to take the replacement tissue from the donor site. Among synthetic biomaterials, different metals may be utilized to efficiently reconstruct the maxillofacial injured region. This article makes an effort to summarize the most important metals in use in maxillofacial surgery, and point out advantages and disadvantage of each typ
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