3,822 research outputs found

    Nut production in Bertholletia excelsa across a logged forest mosaic: implications for multiple forest use

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    Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) is one of the world‚Äôs most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity) on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013) in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80%) of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1‚Äď2 timber trees removed per ha). In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09) P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil nut rich forests, when a buffer zone cannot be observed, low logging intensities should be implemented. The sustainability of this integrated management system will ultimately depend on a complex series of socioeconomic and ecological interactions. Yet we submit that our study provides an important initial step in understanding the compatibility of timber harvesting with a high value NTFP, potentially allowing for diversification of forest use strategies in Amazonian Per√Ļ

    Que idade podem alcan√ßar as castanheiras (Bertholletia excelsa) da Amaz√īnia?

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    The age of a large Brazil-nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is measured by radiocarbon dating, and a discussion is made about their importance in the Amazon rain-forest ecosystem.A idade de uma castanheira (Bertholletia excelsa) grande √© medida por data√ß√£o radiocarb√īnica e uma discuss√£o √© feita a respeito de sua import√Ęncia no ecosistema da floresta amaz√īnica

    Que idade podem alcan√ßar as castanheiras (Bertholletia excelsa) da Amaz√īnia?

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    The age of a large Brazil-nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is measured by radiocarbon dating, and a discussion is made about their importance in the Amazon rain-forest ecosystem.A idade de uma castanheira (Bertholletia excelsa) grande √© medida por data√ß√£o radiocarb√īnica e uma discuss√£o √© feita a respeito de sua import√Ęncia no ecosistema da floresta amaz√īnica

    Detailed study of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) oil micro-compounds : Phospholipids, tocopherols and sterols

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    The oil of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) was studied for its composition in fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols and phospholipids. The fatty acids composition of phospholipids was also studied. These results were compared to those of sunflower, walnut, almond, soya and olive oils. Its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, of [bêta]-tocopherol and of [bêta]-sitosterol gave to the Brazil nut interesting antioxidant and anti-cholesterol properties. The composition of fatty acids in phospholipid is very different from the composition of the oil. Linolenic acid, which is not present in the oil, is present at a high level in phosphatidylethanolamine. (Résumé d'auteur

    Bertholletia excelsa SEEDS IN THE CERRADO-AMAZON TRANSITION REGION: MORPHOMETRY, COLORIMETRY, VIABILITY AND GERMINATION

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    This study aimed to describe the morphometric characteristics of fruits and seeds, and to evaluate the viability and germination of B. excelsa seeds stored under litter under microenvironmental conditions of their natural habitat in the Cerrado-Brazilian Amazon transition. The morphometric characterization included measurements of diameters and latitudinal and longitudinal circumferences of the fruits; exocarp and mesocarp thickness, weight of fruits and seeds per fruit, number of seeds per fruit, thickness, width and length of seeds. Seed moisture was obtained by the ratio between masses. The colorimetric characterization occurred in the mesocarp, external and internal tegument and in the internal part of the seed. Seed viability was evaluated by the tetrazolium test and germination with degummed and intact seeds. Morphometric variability of fruits and seeds of B. excelsa was observed regardless of humidity. The color of the fruit and the outer seed coat changed color with the reduction of relative air humidity. Variations in the relative humidity of the air during the storage period influenced the significant reduction of 45.31% in the water content of the seeds and compromised the physiological quality, reducing the viability and germination capacity of the seeds. The seeds of B. excelsa are sensitive to variations in humidity. The storage of seeds inside the fruit under the litter under microenvironmental conditions of their natural habitat for up to 96 days with average relative humidity above 65%, guarantees the maintenance of seed moisture above the critical humidity of 30%. Viable seeds with germination power have a water content above 45%.ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe morphometric characteristics of fruits and seeds and evaluate the viability and germination of seeds of Bertholletia excelsa stored on litterfall and under similar microenvironmental conditions to those found in their natural habitat, in a Cerrado-Amazon transition area, Brazil. The morphometric characterization consisted of measurements of diameters and latitudinal and longitudinal circumferences of fruits, exocarp and mesocarp thickness, fruit and seed weights per fruit, number of seeds per fruit, and seed thickness, width, and length. Seed moisture content was determined by the ratio between the fresh and dry weights. Colorimetric characterization was performed for mesocarp, outer and inner seed coats, and internal part of the seeds. Seed viability was evaluated using the tetrazolium test and germination was evaluated using intact seeds without seed coat. Morphometric variability was found for fruits and seeds of B. excelsa, regardless of the air humidity. Fruit color and seed outer coat color changed as the relative air humidity decreased. Variations in relative air humidity during the storage period resulted in a significant decrease (45.31%) in seed moisture content and compromised of the seed physiological quality, decreasing seed viability and germination capacity. B. excelsa seeds are sensitive to variations in air humidity. Storing seeds inside the fruit on litterfall and under similar microenvironmental conditions to their natural habitat for up to 96 days under mean relative air humidity above 65% ensures the maintenance of seed moisture above the critical level (30%). Viable seeds with germination potential present moisture contents above 45%. Keywords: Amazon Rainforest; forest residues; recalcitrance; Brazil nut conservation; extractivism. ¬† Sementes de Bertholletia excelsa na transi√ß√£o Cerrado-Amaz√īnia: morfometria, colorimetria, viabilidade e germina√ß√£o ¬† RESUMO: Este estudo objetivou descrever as caracter√≠sticas morfom√©tricas dos frutos e sementes, e, avaliar a viabilidade e germina√ß√£o das sementes da B. excelsa armazenadas sob a serapilheira em condi√ß√Ķes microambientais do seu habitat natural na transi√ß√£o Cerrado-Amaz√īnia brasileira. A caracteriza√ß√£o morfom√©trica incluiu medidas de di√Ęmetros e circunfer√™ncias latitudinal e longitudinal dos frutos; espessura do exocarpo e do mesocarpo, massa dos frutos e das sementes por fruto, n√ļmero de sementes por fruto, espessura, largura e comprimento das sementes. A umidade das sementes foi obtida pela raz√£o entre massas. A caracteriza√ß√£o colorim√©trica ocorreu no mesocarpo, tegumento externo e interno e na parte interna da semente. A viabilidade das sementes foi avaliada pelo teste de tetraz√≥lio e a germina√ß√£o com sementes destegumentadas e intactas. Observou-se variabilidade morfom√©trica dos frutos e sementes da B. excelsa independentemente da umidade. A cor do fruto e do tegumento externo da semente mudaram de tonalidade com a redu√ß√£o da umidade relativa do ar. As varia√ß√Ķes da umidade relativa do ar durante o per√≠odo de armazenamento influenciaram na redu√ß√£o expressiva de 45,31 % no teor de √°gua das sementes e comprometeu a qualidade fisiol√≥gica, diminuindo a viabilidade e capacidade de germina√ß√£o das sementes. As sementes da B. excelsa s√£o sens√≠veis as varia√ß√Ķes de umidade. O armazenamento das sementes dentro do fruto sob a serapilheira em condi√ß√Ķes microambientais do seu habitat natural por at√© 96 dias com umidade relativa do ar m√©dia acima de 65 %, garante a manuten√ß√£o da umidade das sementes acima da umidade cr√≠tica de 30 %. Sementes vi√°veis e com poder germinativo apresentam teor de √°gua acima de 45 %. Palavras-chave: Floresta Amaz√īnica; res√≠duos florestais; recalcitr√Ęncia; conserva√ß√£o da castanha do Brasil; extrativismo

    Elaboración de sorbetes biodegradables a partir de residuos lignocelulósicos de Bertholletia excelsa, Lima, 2021

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    La presente investigación tiene como finalidad la elaboración de sorbetes biodegradables a partir de residuos lignocelulósicos de Bertholletia excelsa, bajo métodos de ensayo, instrumentos y composiciones en diferentes concentraciones, acorde a las revisiones bibliografías recopiladas de cada variable. La investigación es de enfoque cuantitativo y tipo aplicada. En la primera etapa se realizó el acondicionamiento de los residuos; En la segunda etapa se analizó las composiciones físicas químicas de la cáscara de Bertholletia excelsa para determinar el material lignocelulósicos que presenta; para la tercera etapa que es la elaboración del bioplástico de Bertholletia excelsa se realizaron 4 mezclas , las cuales fueron 2 mezclas de 24 g de residuos lignocelulósicos de Bertholletia excelsa con dosis de pectina de 25g y 30g; y 2 mezclas 20 g residuos lignocelulósicos de Bertholletia excelsa con las mismas dosis de pectina , se hizo una repetición por muestra. Para la etapa final se enviaron a analizar los bioplásticos de sorbetes obteniendo como resultados promedio de elongación 9.16 %, 34.95 N de tracción y una dureza 89 shore A. Siendo M4 la dosis más óptima para la elaboración del sorbete. Por otro lado, el porcentaje de biodegradación que alcanzo en 28 días fue del 75%

    Dispers√£o prim√°ria de frutos da castanheira (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.): import√Ęncia para o manejo e a conserva√ß√£o da esp√©cie.

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    A castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.) √© um produto florestal n√£o madeireiro de destaque, por consolidar aspectos econ√īmicos, sociais e ecol√≥gicos. No entanto, pr√°ticas de manejo ainda precisam ser estabelecidas para que a extra√ß√£o desse produto seja realizada de forma segura, a fim de que o extrativista tenha um produto de qualidade e que seja sustent√°vel para a esp√©cie. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a din√Ęmica da dispers√£o prim√°ria de frutos de Bertholletia excelsa em um castanhal nativo no estado do Acre, buscando obter informa√ß√Ķes que subsidiem uma defini√ß√£o segura sobre a melhor √©poca e o intervalo de coleta dos frutos. Durante o per√≠odo de dispers√£o, 20 √°rvores foram monitoradas, sendo seus frutos contados e marcados de acordo com o tempo de queda. A queda dos frutos ocorreu em picos, sendo que, ap√≥s 50 dias do in√≠cio da dispers√£o, praticamente todos os frutos j√° haviam ca√≠do. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que a coleta deve come√ßar a partir da oitava semana ap√≥s o in√≠cio da dispers√£o, e apenas um retorno √†s √°rvores deve ser realizado para a coleta dos frutos remanescentes, proporcionando ganhos em termos de qualidade e maior efici√™ncia na produtividade

    Peer review sobre os estudos dos teores foliares de nutrientes em Bertholletia excelsa Bonp

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    The adequate nutrients supply for Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Bonp.) facilitates its management for economic or ecological purposes. However, the lack of sufficiency ranges for foliar concentrations of primary and secondary macronutrients makes it difficult to interpret the nutritional requirement of the crop. Thus, the objective of this study is to characterize the nutritional aspects about Bertholletia excelsa, based on the peer review of the leaf and macro levels of micronutrients in plants grown in Brazil. The study is based on eight published of Bertholletia excelsa, which were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Macro and micronutrient ranges were defined according to the mean of the minimum and maximum levels verified between the studies and the values were estimated at low, normal and high for each nutrient. There was great variation between macronutrient values. Nitrogen is accumulated in a larger quantity in the leaves of Bertholletia excelsa and, where the leaf accumulation follows the order: N> K> Ca> Mg> S> P. The nutrient foliar concentrations observed in the literature are consistent with the foliar ranges proposed by this study for plants of Brazil nut.O adequado suprimento de nutrientes para a castanheira-do-Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa Bonp.) facilita seu manejo para fins econ√īmicos ou ecol√≥gicos. Entretanto, a car√™ncia de faixas de sufici√™ncia para os teores foliares de macronutrientes prim√°rios e secund√°rios dificultam a interpreta√ß√£o da exig√™ncia nutricional da cultura. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo √© caracterizar os aspectos nutricionais de Bertholletia excelsa, com base na revis√£o sistem√°tica da literatura acerca dos teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes em plantas cultivadas no Brasil. O estudo √© baseado em oito publica√ß√Ķes sobre Bertholletia excelsa, que foram analisados por meio de estat√≠stica descritiva. Faixas de macro e micronutrientes foram definidas conforme a m√©dia dos teores m√≠nimos e m√°ximos verificados nos estudos e, os valores foram estimados em: baixos normais e altos para cada nutriente. Houve grande varia√ß√£o entre os valores de macronutrientes, onde o nitrog√™nio √© acumulado em maior quantidade nas folhas de Bertholletia excelsa, sendo que, o ac√ļmulo foliar segue a ordem: N > K > Ca > Mg > S > P. Os teores foliares de nutrientes observados na literatura s√£o condizentes com as faixas foliares propostas neste trabalho para plantas de castanheira-do-Brasil

    Fenologia reprodutiva de castanha-do-brasil, (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. Bompl.), em Porto Velho/RO.

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    Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar as √©pocas de ocorr√™ncia das fenofases de flora√ß√£o e frutifica√ß√£o da castanha-do-brasil em √°rea de Floresta Ombrofila Aberta, localizada em Porto Velho, Rond√īnia, RO. A castanha-do-brasil (Bertollethia excelsa) √© uma das mais importante esp√©cie de explora√ß√£o extrativa da Amaz√īnia. Observou-se a fenologia de 10 √°rvores de castanha-do-brasil em floresta ombrofila aberta no per√≠odo de 1995 a 1999, em Porto Velho. Analisou-se a ocorr√™ncia das fenofases flora√ß√£o, frutifica√ß√£o e mudan√ßa foliar. A popula√ß√£o apresentou padr√£o fenol√≥gico anual e alto √≠ndice de sincronia (Z = 0,84) para flora√ß√£o. A flora√ß√£o ocorreu de setembro a janeiro; a frutifica√ß√£o de outubro at√© janeiro do segundo ano.bitstream/CPAF-RO-2010/14560/1/61-castanha.pd
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