97 research outputs found

    The British Museum and the Cultural Logic of Museology

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    Aristotle on Geometrical Potentialities

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    This paper examines Aristotle's discussion of the priority of actuality to potentiality in geometry at Metaphysics Θ9, 1051a21–33. Many scholars have assumed what I call the "geometrical construction" interpretation, according to which his point here concerns the relation between an inquirer's thinking and a geometrical figure. In contrast, I defend what I call the "geometrical analysis" interpretation, according to which it concerns the asymmetrical relation between geometrical propositions in which one is proved by means of the other. His argument as so construed is ultimately based on the asymmetrical relation between the corresponding geometrical facts. Then I explore this ontological priority in geometry by drawing attention to a parallel passage, Posterior Analytics II.11, 94a24–35, where Aristotle explains the relation between the same geometrical propositions in connection to material causation

    COPYRIGHT ISSUE IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPLICATIONS OF SMART PRODUCTION AND AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS

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    Background: In recent years, the use of artificial intelligence in the field of production and design has increased. As a result, in smart production and autonomous systems, the concepts of copyright and rights ownership on the works produced have become increasingly complex. In addition, there is no sufficient legal regulation regarding the rights of the software side of the system, the content providers and the commercial parties with whom they have agreements, in the productions made by autonomous systems through artificial intelligence software. In addition to the ownership of the work, the copyright of the elements in the content of the work and those who produce these elements also emerge as an important problem in productions made with artificial intelligence. Purpose of Study: In this study, it is aimed to examine the copyright issue in artificial intelligence applications of smart production and autonomous systems. Sources of Evidence: In the research, a literature review was conducted and semiotic analysis and content analysis were conducted based on academic studies. According to the results obtained, analyzes were made regarding the deficiencies in copyright and the main problems arising from field applications in smart production and autonomous systems made through artificial intelligence. Main Argument: The main argument of the research is that copyright is an important problem in both the short and long term in smart production and autonomous systems produced through artificial intelligence. Conclusions: Although DSM Directive 2019/790/EU, which was issued in 2016 and came into force in 2019, regulates digital copyrights, there are serious deficiencies regarding the ownership of the system or work and the legal regulations regarding smart productions and autonomous systems produced through artificial intelligence. While DSM Directive 2019/790/EU targets a uniform digital market, the copyright issue in artificial intelligence applications shows that this regulation is also inadequate. Regarding the AI Act, there is not yet sufficient regulation or implementation data regarding copyrights. The United States Copyright Office published in 2023 points out similar deficiencies in artificial intelligence and copyrights. Existing copyright regulations are insufficient today, especially for smart products produced by autonomous systems. One of the most important sources of the problem is that the work, its ownership, the types of work, and the commercial and moral values of the work are not fully defined. For a solution, comprehensive and advanced studies are needed regarding the copyrights of artificial intelligence

    Metafiction and Metaphor: Daniel Deronda as Golem

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    A criticism of George Eliot\u27s Daniel Deronda, from Henry James onwards, is that it is a novel of two halves: the realist Gwendolen half, and the visionary Mordecai half. These two are regarded as unable to mesh, and thus weaken the novel in structure and purpose. When examining the novel and a contextual interpretation of the Jewish myth of the golem, however, this bifurcation seems intentional; more than that, it is a metafictional rendering of the theme in the novel\u27s structure. The term golem is central to mythical creation in Judaism. It means an unformed mass. Before he is given shape, Adam is golem; before he receives the inspiriting breath of God, Adam is also golem. The ambiguity of the term presents it as a metaphor for shapelessness. Despite this - perhaps because of it - golem occupies an important symbolic position in the history of Judaism. As with most myths its origins were in ritual practice; in its subsequent manifestations golem making has been used as proof of human imitation of the divine, and sometimes regarded as transgression into the occult. Most popular has been its reception in folk legend, where it has been attributed to the wonder-working of Elijah of Chelm, and the Faustian Yehuda Loew of Prague. In literature it has served as a symbol for \u27the unredeemed, unformed man; the Jewish people; the working class aspiring for its liberation. In Daniel Deronda Deronda is an unformed man whose growth into definition becomes a metaphor for cohesion in and of the novel

    Stray Thoughts on the History of Medicine

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    Bodies, Temporality, and Spatiality in Chen Chieh-Jen’s Lingchi: Echoes of a Historical Photograph (2002) and Factory (2003)

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    This article discusses Taiwanese artist Chen Chieh-Jen’s (1960-) two early videos Lingchi: Echoes of a Historical Photograph (2002) and Factory (2003). By revisiting a historical photograph taken by a French soldier in 1905 and articulated by French philosopher George Bataille in 1961, Chen reworks the internal genealogy of imperialist violence from late-nineteenth-century China to 1990s Taiwan in Lingchi. Lingchi reenacts a victim in the process of execution (death by a thousand cuts) from an old photo, which interrogates the violence of photography on a dying person and Bataille’s fetishisation of the cultural Other. In one scene, the camera enters the subject’s bodily orifices and shows two scenes: the sites of imperialist invasions in the early twentieth century as well as two laid-off women workers in 1990s Taiwan. Factory reorganises this group of laid-off women workers to work in the abandoned garment factory as if they stage a silent labour strike. This reenactment not only plays a prolonged and endless labour conundrum but also reveals the unequal economic relationship between Taiwan and the United States in Cold-War Taiwan, a continuation of imperialist domination in the postwar period. This article explores two dimensions: First, the aestheticisation of the suffering subject in Lingchi and how it debunks the Western gaze. Second, their communal subjects (the women workers) and the scenes in Lingchi and Factory reflect the continuation of imperialist domination in Taiwan under globalisation

    An Address Delivered at Gorham, on Opening the Academy in that Place

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    A transcript of and address delivered at the opening of Gorham Academy in Gorham, Maine, on September 8, 1806

    Second Cause in Posterior Analytics II.11

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    I contend that the second cause of Posterior Analytics II.11 expresses Aristotle\u27s doctrine of material cause as hypothetical necessity in Physics II. Aristotle presents two formulations of the second cause in Posterior Analytics II. 11, which he clearly means to be equivalent. These two formulations of the second cause, taken literally without reference to the definition of the syllogism, fit Aristotle\u27s description of a material cause being hypothetical necessity in Physics II - that is, a necessary means to produce a goal. In Physics II.9 Aristotle\u27s thesis that an elementary mathematical definition is a hypothetical necessity for the proof of a mathematical theorem explains the application of the second cause as middle term in the mathematical syllogism of Posterior Analytics II.11

    English as a foreign language : vocabulary acquisition in very young learners

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    The purpose of this study is to examine how very young learners acquire a set of specific English vocabulary, and how much are they able to retain over a period of two months without any class exposure to it. A group of young Catalan/Spanish bilinguals were tested through two vocabular tests: one right after the 5-week lesson and the other after two months. The tests aimed to analyse the children's levels of production and comprehension of the studied vocabulary. Results confirm that comprehension develops much before production and that it is retained over time. Receptive knowledge seems to have consolidated much more than productive knowledge.El propósito de este estudio es examinar cómo un grupo de estudiantes de entre 5 y 6 años adquieren un conjunto de vocabulario específico en inglés y cuánto retienen durante un período de dos meses sin ninguna exposición al mismo. Los estudiantes, cuya lengua materna es el catalán y/o el español, fueron evaluados a través de dos pruebas de vocabulario: la primera al finalizar 5 semanas de lecciones, y la segunda después de 2 meses. El objetivo era analizar los niveles de producción y comprensión del vocabulario en cuestión. Los resultados confirman que la comprensión se desarrolla mucho antes que la producción, y que se retiene con el tiempo.L'objectiu d'aquest estudi és examinar com un grup d'estudiants de 5 i 6 anys adquireixen un conjunt de vocabulari específic en anglès i quant retenen durant un període de dos mesos sense cap exposició al mateix. Els estudiants, que tenen com a llengua materna el català i/o el castellà, van ser avaluats a través de dues proves de vocabulari: la primera justament després de finalitzar 5 setmanes de lliçons, i la segona dos mesos després. L'objectiu era analitzar els nivells de producció i comprensió del vocabulari en qüestió. Els resultats confirmen que la comprensió es desenvolupa molt abans que la producció, i que es reté amb el temps
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