41,323 research outputs found

    Anticancer Agents

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    This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue entitled “Anticancer Agents: Design, Synthesis and Evaluation” that was published in Molecules. Two review articles and thirty research papers are included in the Special Issue. Three second-generation androgen receptor antagonists that have been approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reviewed. Identification of mimics of protein partners as protein-protein interaction inhibitors via virtual screening has been summarized and discussed. Anticancer agents targeting various protein targets, including IGF-1R, Src, protein kinase, aromatase, HDAC, PARP, Toll-Like receptor, c-Met, PI3Kdelta, topoisomerase II, p53, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, have been explored. The analogs of three well-known tubulin-interacting natural products, paclitaxel, zampanolide, and colchicine, have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated. Several anticancer agents representing diverse chemical scaffolds were assessed in different kinds of cancer cell models. The capability of some anticancer agents to overcome the resistance to currently available drugs was also studied. In addition to looking into the in vitro ability of the anticancer agents to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle, in vivo antitumor efficacy in animal models and DFT were also investigated in some papers

    Combination chemotherapy with anticancer agents and OK-432

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    Antitumor effects of the combination chemotherapy with hemolytic streptococcus preparation, OK-432, and various anticancer agents were observed on experimental tumors and human cancers. Experimental studies revealed that combined use of OK-432 with Mitomycin C, Nitrogen mustard N-Oxide or Bleomycin was remarkably effective on rodent transplantable tumors such as Ehrlich carcinoma, sarcoma-lOO and rat ascitic hepatoma AH-66. As for the mode of action of OK-432, besides a direct action on cancer cells, a host-mediated action appears to be also involved. Clinical trials were made on 14 cases with various advanced cancers, and favorable response was obtained in 5 with lung cancer. Fever was the major side effect of OK-432 and there was no evidence of bone marrow suppression.</p

    Polyelectrolytes with high charge density

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    Polymers can be used as flocculants to clarify residential and industrial water supplies and as bactericidal and fungicidal agents. They can be used in preparation of electroconductive photocopy papers, to improve living cell adhesion to glass or plastic, and as anticancer agents

    Drug repurposing against COVID-19. focus on anticancer agents

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    The very limited time allowed to face the COVID-19 pandemic poses a pressing challenge to find proper therapeutic approaches. However, synthesis and full investigation from preclinical studies to phase III trials of new medications is a time-consuming procedure, and not viable in a global emergency, such as the one we are facing

    Macromolecular platinum-based anticancer agents

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    A thesis submitted to the faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, in fulfillment of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Science Johannesburg, 2012Platinum is nowadays one of the best and widely used antitumor agents in cancer chemotherapy. The numerous performances reported by many previous researchers for this metal in the fight against several malignancies led to the synthesis of many platinum complexes. However, the clinical responses related to these complexes led to the development of non-platinum compounds with metal ions which exhibit antitumor activity. Ferrocene is one of them, owing the high consideration inter alia to its environmental oxidore-ductive behavior. Methotrexate is another clinically used anticancer drug worthy to be mentioned. With a structure very close to that of folic acid, differing from it by an amine function and a methyl group, respectively, instead of an hydrogen and an hydroxyl group on the folate, methotrexate has been considered as an antagonist of folic acid by its mechanism of action in the biological environment. It has, together with platinum and non-platinum complexes, shown notorious side-effects by fighting both normal and abnormal cells despite their antineoplastic potency. This is the reason why a drug delivery system is considered as a tool to improve metal complexes and other drugs selectivity for cancer cells. The strategy of enhancing the potency of non-polymeric chemically, physically, or biologically active compounds through the expediency of binding such compounds to a polymeric carrier has revolutioned numerous technologies. In the present thesis is demonstrated the synthesis of several water-soluble macromolecular drug carriers intended for biomedical applications, and the anchoring of platinum to ferrocene-containing antineoplastic agents on one side, then to methotrexate-containing antineoplastic agents on the other side, resulting in a co-conjugate or a conjugate bearing two different drugs on a single carrier. This multidrug anchoring offers the advantage to exploit the potency of two different drugs on a single polymeric structure, each drug having its own pharmacokinetic path. Platinum is the common drug, while ferrocene and methotrexate are the various co-drugs. This order of having the platinum imparted to the polymeric carrier after the two drugs above mentioned were adopted in obedience to the strategy of having the most synthetically demanding drug incorporated in the carrier before the least one. Anchoring of the three drugs to polymeric structures was achieved in aqueous environment. Methotrexate (MTX) and ferrocene (Fc) binding were achieved via HBTU as coupling agent. In all cases, more or less, but very close to, 100% drug loading could be achieved under careful control of experimental conditions. The water-soluble polymeric carriers used are copolyaspartamides, prepared by an aminolytic ring-opening process of polysuccinimide, and copoly(amidoamines) obtained by Michael polyaddition of methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). These polymers were designed to bear amine, hydroxyl or carboxylic acid functional groups in their structure, either as part of the main chain or side chain. The functional groups herein mentioned are important for the coupling of the chemically modified drug species. Exploratory in-vitro biological studies are discussed, as the co-conjugation of the metallic antineoplastic drug, ferrocene and the antifolate methotrexate, each with the metallic drug platinum, is performed. The results of these preliminary tests show that polymer-drug conjugates and co-conjugates can play a role in future cancer therapy

    Polyoxometalates impact as anticancer agents

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    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are oxoanions of transition metal ions, such as V, Mo, W, Nb, and Pd, forming a variety of structures with a wide range of applications. Herein, we analyzed recent studies on the effects of polyoxometalates as anticancer agents, particularly their effects on the cell cycle. To this end, a literature search was carried out between March and June 2022, using the keywords “polyoxometalates” and “cell cycle”. The effects of POMs on selected cell lines can be diverse, such as their effects in the cell cycle, protein expression, mitochondrial effects, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell death and cell viability. The present study focused on cell viability and cell cycle arrest. Cell viability was analyzed by dividing the POMs into sections according to the constituent compound, namely polyoxovanadates (POVs), polyoxomolybdates (POMos), polyoxopaladates (POPds) and polyoxotungstates (POTs). When comparing and sorting the IC50 values in ascending order, we obtained first POVs, then POTs, POPds and, finally, POMos. When comparing clinically approved drugs and POMs, better results of POMs in relation to drugs were observed in many cases, since the dose required to have an inhibitory concentration of 50% is 2 to 200 times less, depending on the POMs, highlighting that these compounds could become in the future an alternative to existing drugs in cancer therapy.LA/P/0101/2020info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Epigenetics as a mechanism driving polygenic clinical drug resistance

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    Aberrant methylation of CpG islands located at or near gene promoters is associated with inactivation of gene expression during tumour development. It is increasingly recognised that such epimutations may occur at a much higher frequency than gene mutation and therefore have a greater impact on selection of subpopulations of cells during tumour progression or acquisition of resistance to anticancer drugs. Although laboratory-based models of acquired resistance to anticancer agents tend to focus on specific genes or biochemical pathways, such 'one gene : one outcome' models may be an oversimplification of acquired resistance to treatment of cancer patients. Instead, clinical drug resistance may be due to changes in expression of a large number of genes that have a cumulative impact on chemosensitivity. Aberrant CpG island methylation of multiple genes occurring in a nonrandom manner during tumour development and during the acquisition of drug resistance provides a mechanism whereby expression of multiple genes could be affected simultaneously resulting in polygenic clinical drug resistance. If simultaneous epigenetic regulation of multiple genes is indeed a major driving force behind acquired resistance of patients' tumour to anticancer agents, this has important implications for biomarker studies of clinical outcome following chemotherapy and for clinical approaches designed to circumvent or modulate drug resistance

    Non-bisphosphonate inhibitors of isoprenoid biosynthesis identified via computer-aided drug design.

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    The relaxed complex scheme, a virtual-screening methodology that accounts for protein receptor flexibility, was used to identify a low-micromolar, non-bisphosphonate inhibitor of farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Serendipitously, we also found that several predicted farnesyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors were low-micromolar inhibitors of undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase. These results are of interest because farnesyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors are being pursued as both anti-infective and anticancer agents, and undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors are antibacterial drug leads

    A review : cancer research of natural products in Asia.

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    With the increasing level of the carcinogenic and mutagenic substances in the environment, the research to explore new anticancer compounds has become crucial day after day. Although, many chemical anticancer agents are available, the wide spectrum side effects and emergence of chemotherapy resistant cancer cells among patients have made cancer research and discovery of new anticancer agents from natural products particularly medicinal plants pivotal. This review highlights the cancer research led to new natural anticancer agents discovered by Asian scientists in the period from 2000 to 2008. This review focuses also on the evidence based scientific research that proved the importance of dietary habits particularly the vegetarian diet as a potent factor in reducing the risk of carcinogenesis. Many components isolated from plants have been approved to be potent anticancer agents. The plant-derived polyphenolic compounds are promising nutraceuticals for control of various disorders and cancer. These compounds may be the future developing anticancer drugs with no side effect and low cost for people all around the world. The much lower risk of colon, prostate and breast cancers in Asians, who consume more vegetables, fruits and tea than populations in the western hemisphere, raises the role of flavonoid components as protective factors against carcinogenesis

    Mechanism-based model characterizing bidirectional interaction between PEGylated liposomal CKD-602 (S-CKD602) and monocytes in cancer patients

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    S-CKD602 is a PEGylated liposomal formulation of CKD-602, a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor. The objective of this study was to characterize the bidirectional pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) interaction between S-CKD602 and monocytes. Plasma concentrations of encapsulated CKD-602 and monocytes counts from 45 patients with solid tumors were collected following intravenous administration of S-CKD602 in the phase I study. The PK-PD models were developed and fit simultaneously to the PK-PD data, using NONMEM®. The monocytopenia after administration of S-CKD602 was described by direct toxicity to monocytes in a mechanism-based model, and by direct toxicity to progenitor cells in bone marrow in a myelosuppression-based model. The nonlinear PK disposition of S-CKD602 was described by linear degradation and irreversible binding to monocytes in the mechanism-based model, and Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the myelosuppression-based model. The mechanism-based PK-PD model characterized the nonlinear PK disposition, and the bidirectional PK-PD interaction between S-CKD602 and monocytes. © 2012 Cárdenas et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd
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