71,873 research outputs found

    Therapeutic applications of computer models of brain activity for Alzheimer disease.

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    Insights into Alzheimer disease pathogenesis from studies in transgenic animal models

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    Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly, accounting for ∼60-70% of all cases of dementia. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease are senile plaques (mainly containing β-amyloid peptide derived from amyloid precursor protein) and neurofibrillary tangles (containing hyperphosphorylated Tau protein), along with neuronal loss. At present there is no effective treatment for Alzheimer disease. Given the prevalence and poor prognosis of the disease, the development of animal models has been a research priority to understand pathogenic mechanisms and to test therapeutic strategies. Most cases of Alzheimer disease occur sporadically in people over 65 years old, and are not genetically inherited. Roughly 5% of patients with Alzheimer disease have familial Alzheimer disease—that is, related to a genetic predisposition, including mutations in the amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1, and presenilin 2 genes. The discovery of genes for familial Alzheimer disease has allowed transgenic models to be generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial Alzheimer disease. Although none of these models fully replicates the human disease, they have provided valuable insights into disease mechanisms as well as opportunities to test therapeutic approaches. This review describes the main transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer disease which have been adopted in Alzheimer disease research, and discusses the insights into Alzheimer disease pathogenesis from studies in such models. In summary, the Alzheimer disease mouse models have been the key to understanding the roles of soluble β-amyloid oligomers in disease pathogenesis, as well as of the relationship between β-amyloid and Tau pathologies

    Attenuation of choroidal tickness in patients with Alzheimer disease: evidence from an Italian prospective study

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    INTRODUCTION: To compare the 12-month choroidal thickness (CT) change between Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and normal subjects. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, 39 patients with a diagnosis of mild to moderate AD and 39 age-matched control subjects were included. All the subjects underwent neuropsychological (Mini Mental State Examination, Alzheimer disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale, and the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale) and ophthalmological evaluation, including spectral domain optical coherence tomography, at baseline and after 12 months. CT was measured manually using the caliper tool of the optical coherence tomography device. RESULTS: After 12 months, AD patients had a greater reduction of CT than controls (P≤0.05, adjusted for baseline CT, age, sex, axial length, and smoking). DISCUSSION: CT in patients with AD showed a rate of thinning greater than what could be expected during the natural course of aging

    Regional Analysis of the Magnetization Transfer Ratio of the Brain in Mild Alzheimer Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Manually drawn VOI-based analysis shows a decrease in magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer disease. We investigated with whole-brain voxelwise analysis the regional changes of the magnetization transfer ratio in patients with mild Alzheimer disease and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with mild Alzheimer disease, 27 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 30 healthy elderly control subjects were examined with high-resolution T1WI and 3-mm-thick magnetization transfer images. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis of magnetization transfer ratio maps was performed by use of Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software and was supplemented by the analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio in FreeSurfer parcellation-derived VOIs. RESULTS: Voxelwise analysis showed 2 clusters of significantly decreased magnetization transfer ratio in the left hippocampus and amygdala and in the left posterior mesial temporal cortex (fusiform gyrus) of patients with Alzheimer disease as compared with control subjects but no difference between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and either patients with Alzheimer disease or control subjects. VOI analysis showed that the magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus and amygdala was significantly lower (bilaterally) in patients with Alzheimer disease when compared with control subjects (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, at P < .05). Mean magnetization transfer ratio values in the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were between those of healthy control subjects and those of patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Support vector machine-based classification demonstrated improved classification performance after inclusion of magnetization transfer ratio-related features, especially between patients with Alzheimer disease versus healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral but asymmetric decrease of magnetization transfer ratio reflecting microstructural changes of the residual GM is present not only in the hippocampus but also in the amygdala in patients with mild Alzheimer disease

    Increased isoprostane and prostaglandin are prominent in neurons in Alzheimer disease

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    BACKGROUND: Inflammation and oxidative stress are both involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and have been shown to be reciprocally linked. One group of molecules that have been directly associated with inflammation and the production of free radicals are the prostaglandin 13,14-dihydro 15-keto PGF(2α )and the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF(2α). RESULTS: To further delineate the role of inflammatory and oxidative parameters in Alzheimer disease, in this study we evaluated the amount and localization of 13,14-dihydro 15-keto PGF(2α )and 8-iso-PGF(2α )in hippocampal post mortem tissue samples from age-matched Alzheimer disease and control patients. Our results demonstrate increased levels of 13,14-dihydro 15-keto PGF(2α )and 8-iso-PGF(2α )in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons of Alzheimer disease patients when compared to control patients. CONCLUSION: These data not only support the shared mechanistic involvement of free radical damage and inflammation in Alzheimer disease, but also indicate that multiple pathogenic "hits" are likely necessary for both the development and propagation of Alzheimer disease

    Presenilin1 familial Alzheimer disease mutants inactivate EFNB1- and BDNF-dependent neuroprotection against excitotoxicity by affecting neuroprotective complexes of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor

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    Excitotoxicity is thought to play key roles in brain neurodegeneration and stroke. Here we show that neuroprotection against excitotoxicity by trophic factors EFNB1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (called here factors) requires de novo formation of 'survival complexes' which are factor-stimulated complexes of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor with factor receptor and presenilin 1. Absence of presenilin 1 reduces the formation of survival complexes and abolishes neuroprotection. EPH receptor B2- and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-derived peptides designed to disrupt formation of survival complexes also decrease the factor-stimulated neuroprotection. Strikingly, factor-dependent neuroprotection and levels of the de novo factor-stimulated survival complexes decrease dramatically in neurons expressing presenilin 1 familial Alzheimer disease mutants. Mouse neurons and brains expressing presenilin 1 familial Alzheimer disease mutants contain increased amounts of constitutive presenilin 1-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complexes unresponsive to factors. Interestingly, the stability of the familial Alzheimer disease presenilin 1-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complexes differs from that of wild type complexes and neurons of mutant-expressing brains are more vulnerable to cerebral ischaemia than neurons of wild type brains. Furthermore, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents at CA1 synapses are altered by presenilin 1 familial Alzheimer disease mutants. Importantly, high levels of presenilin 1-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complexes are also found in post-mortem brains of Alzheimer disease patients expressing presenilin 1 familial Alzheimer disease mutants. Together, our data identify a novel presenilin 1-dependent neuroprotective mechanism against excitotoxicity and indicate a pathway by which presenilin 1 familial Alzheimer disease mutants decrease factor-depended neuroprotection against excitotoxicity and ischaemia in the absence of Alzheimer disease neuropathological hallmarks which may form downstream of neuronal damage. These findings have implications for the pathogenic effects of familial Alzheimer disease mutants and therapeutic strategies.This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants 2RF1AG008200-29; 2R01-NS047229; P50AG05138; and by Grant AARF-17-531426 of the Alzheimer's Association

    Quantification of white matter cellularity and damage in preclinical and early symptomatic Alzheimer\u27s disease

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    Interest in understanding the roles of white matter (WM) inflammation and damage in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been growing significantly in recent years. However, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for imaging inflammation are still lacking. An advanced diffusion-based MRI method, neuro-inflammation imaging (NII), has been developed to clinically image and quantify WM inflammation and damage in AD. Here, we employed NII measures in conjunction with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker classification (for β-amyloid (Aβ) and neurodegeneration) to evaluate 200 participants in an ongoing study of memory and aging. Elevated NII-derived cellular diffusivity was observed in both preclinical and early symptomatic phases of AD, while disruption of WM integrity, as detected by decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD), was only observed in the symptomatic phase of AD. This may suggest that WM inflammation occurs earlier than WM damage following abnormal Aβ accumulation in AD. The negative correlation between NII-derived cellular diffusivity and CSF Aβ42 level (a marker of amyloidosis) may indicate that WM inflammation is associated with increasing Aβ burden. NII-derived FA also negatively correlated with CSF t-tau level (a marker of neurodegeneration), suggesting that disruption of WM integrity is associated with increasing neurodegeneration. Our findings demonstrated the capability of NII to simultaneously image and quantify WM cellularity changes and damage in preclinical and early symptomatic AD. NII may serve as a clinically feasible imaging tool to study the individual and composite roles of WM inflammation and damage in AD. Keywords: Inflammation, White matter damage, Diffusion basis spectrum imaging, Neuro-inflammation imaging, Cerebrospinal fluid, Preclinical Alzheimer disease, Early symptomatic Alzheimer disease, Magnetic resonance imagin
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