73,642 research outputs found

    Predominant contribution of cis-regulatory divergence in the evolution of mouse alternative splicing

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    Divergence of alternative splicing represents one of the major driving forces to shape phenotypic diversity during evolution. However, the extent to which these divergences could be explained by the evolving cis-regulatory versus trans-acting factors remains unresolved. To globally investigate the relative contributions of the two factors for the first time in mammals, we measured splicing difference between C57BL/6J and SPRET/EiJ mouse strains and allele-specific splicing pattern in their F1 hybrid. Out of 11,818 alternative splicing events expressed in the cultured fibroblast cells, we identified 796 with significant difference between the parental strains. After integrating allele-specific data from F1 hybrid, we demonstrated that these events could be predominately attributed to cis-regulatory variants, including those residing at and beyond canonical splicing sites. Contrary to previous observations in Drosophila, such predominant contribution was consistently observed across different types of alternative splicing. Further analysis of liver tissues from the same mouse strains and reanalysis of published datasets on other strains showed similar trends, implying in general the predominant contribution of cis-regulatory changes in the evolution of mouse alternative splicing

    Quantifying alternative splicing from paired-end RNA-sequencing data

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    RNA-sequencing has revolutionized biomedical research and, in particular, our ability to study gene alternative splicing. The problem has important implications for human health, as alternative splicing may be involved in malfunctions at the cellular level and multiple diseases. However, the high-dimensional nature of the data and the existence of experimental biases pose serious data analysis challenges. We find that the standard data summaries used to study alternative splicing are severely limited, as they ignore a substantial amount of valuable information. Current data analysis methods are based on such summaries and are hence suboptimal. Further, they have limited flexibility in accounting for technical biases. We propose novel data summaries and a Bayesian modeling framework that overcome these limitations and determine biases in a nonparametric, highly flexible manner. These summaries adapt naturally to the rapid improvements in sequencing technology. We provide efficient point estimates and uncertainty assessments. The approach allows to study alternative splicing patterns for individual samples and can also be the basis for downstream analyses. We found a severalfold improvement in estimation mean square error compared popular approaches in simulations, and substantially higher consistency between replicates in experimental data. Our findings indicate the need for adjusting the routine summarization and analysis of alternative splicing RNA-seq studies. We provide a software implementation in the R package casper.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/13-AOAS687 the Annals of Applied Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aoas/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org). With correction

    FOXP3 interacts with hnRNPF to modulate pre-mRNA alternative splicing

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    FOXP3 promotes the development and function of regulatory T cells mainly through regulating the transcription of target genes. RNA alternative splicing has been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes. We report here that FOXP3 associates with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) F through the exon 2-encoded region of FOXP3 and the second quasi-RNA recognition motif (qRRM) of hnRNPF. FOXP3 represses the ability of hnRNPF to bind to its target pre-mRNA and thus modulates RNA alternative splicing. Furthermore, overexpression of mouse hnRNPF in in vitro-differentiated regulatory T cells (Tregs) reduced their suppressive function. Thus, our studies identify a novel mechanism by which FOXP3 regulates mRNA alternative splicing to modulate the function of regulatory T cells

    Corepressor diversification by alternative mRNA splicing is species specific.

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    BackgroundSMRT and NCoR are corepressor paralogs that help mediate transcriptional repression by a variety of transcription factors, including the nuclear hormone receptors. The functions of both corepressors are extensively diversified in mice by alternative mRNA splicing, generating a series of protein variants that differ in different tissues and that exert different, even diametrically opposite, biochemical and biological effects from one another.ResultsWe report here that the alternative splicing previously reported for SMRT appears to be a relatively recent evolutionary phenomenon, with only one of these previously identified sites utilized in a teleost fish and a limited additional number of the additional known sites utilized in a bird, reptile, and marsupial. In contrast, extensive SMRT alternative splicing at these sites was detected among the placental mammals. The alternative splicing of NCoR previously identified in mice (and shown to regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism) is likely to have arisen separately and after that of SMRT, and includes an example of convergent evolution.ConclusionsWe propose that the functions of both SMRT and NCoR have been diversified by alternative splicing during evolution to allow customization for different purposes in different tissues and different species

    Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Ischemic Stroke of Different Etiologies Have Distinct Alternatively Spliced mRNA Profiles in the Blood: a Pilot RNA-seq Study.

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    Whole transcriptome studies have used 3'-biased expression microarrays to study genes regulated in the blood of stroke patients. However, alternatively spliced messenger RNA isoforms have not been investigated for ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in animals or humans. Alternative splicing is the mechanism whereby different combinations of exons of a single gene produce distinct mRNA and protein isoforms. Here, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to determine if alternative splicing differs for ICH and cardioembolic, large vessel and lacunar causes of ischemic stroke compared to controls. RNA libraries from 20 whole blood samples were sequenced to 200 M 2 × 100 bp reads using Illumina sequencing-by-synthesis technology. Differential alternative splicing was assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and differential exon usage was calculated. Four hundred twelve genes displayed differential alternative splicing among the groups (false discovery rate, FDR; p < 0.05). They were involved in cellular immune response, cell death, and cell survival pathways. Distinct expression signatures based on usage of 308 exons (292 genes) differentiated the groups (p < 0.0005; fold change >|1.2|). This pilot study demonstrates that alternatively spliced genes from whole blood differ in ICH compared to ischemic stroke and differ between different ischemic stroke etiologies. These results require validation in a separate cohort

    Identification of an Alternative Exon in a GABA Receptor Gene

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    The central dogma of biology states that DNA is transcribed into mRNA, which is then translated into proteins. In order for translation to occur, pre-mRNAs first must be processed. In pre-mRNA processing, parts of the nucleotide sequence called introns are spliced out from the transcript, so the final mRNA is made up entirely of exons. In alternative splicing, an exon is spliced out of the pre-mRNA transcript much like an intron. An mRNA transcript produced as a result of alternative splicing could produce a different protein than the mRNA without alternative splicing. Alternative splicing of an mRNA transcript could also result in a premature termination codon (PTC) within the mRNA sequence. This premature termination codon causes translation to stop before the full transcript has been translated, resulting in a truncated protein. Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD) functions by degrading mRNA transcripts containing a PTC. NMD occurs during translation by an intricate series of protein-protein and protein-mRNA interactions that detect a PTC and result in the cleavage of PTC-containing mRNAs. We discovered an alternative exon in a zebrafish GABA receptor gene that leads to a PTC when excluded from the final mRNA and investigated the role of NMD in degrading the PTC-containing transcript

    Alternative Splicing

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    ReviewThis entry is adapted from https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239032Alternative splicing (AS) is a critical post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism used by more than 95% of transcribed human genes and responsible for structural transcript variation and proteome diversity.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Human Tra2 proteins jointly control a CHEK1 splicing switch among alternative and constitutive target exons

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    Alternative splicing—the production of multiple messenger RNA isoforms from a single gene—is regulated in part by RNA binding proteins. While the RBPs transformer2 alpha (Tra2α) and Tra2β have both been implicated in the regulation of alternative splicing, their relative contributions to this process are not well understood. Here we find simultaneous—but not individual—depletion of Tra2α and Tra2β induces substantial shifts in splicing of endogenous Tra2β target exons, and that both constitutive and alternative target exons are under dual Tra2α–Tra2β control. Target exons are enriched in genes associated with chromosome biology including CHEK1, which encodes a key DNA damage response protein. Dual Tra2 protein depletion reduces expression of full-length CHK1 protein, results in the accumulation of the DNA damage marker γH2AX and decreased cell viability. We conclude Tra2 proteins jointly control constitutive and alternative splicing patterns via paralog compensation to control pathways essential to the maintenance of cell viability
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