36,938 research outputs found

    Elementary Teacher Knowledge of and Practices for Teaching Reading to African American Students

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    State standardized tests results indicated that between 2012 and 2016, fewer African American students at a rural, Title I elementary school met state standards in reading compared with other racial/ethnic groups of students. A gap in practice existed because the school and district had not conducted studies to understand teacher knowledge and practice as they related to teaching reading to African American students. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to address the problem and gap in practice by exploring elementary teacher knowledge and understanding of the learning needs in reading among African American students. Tomlinson\u27s theory of differentiated instruction served as the conceptual framework for this study. Interview data were analyzed from 10 experienced elementary teachers using 2-cycle provisional coding and pattern coding, which revealed the themes that constituted the findings of my study: (a) teachers understanding of factors that contribute to underachievement in reading of some African American students, (b) professional development and preparation of teachers for teaching African American students, (c) classroom pedagogy for teaching African American students, (d) challenges that teachers encounter when teaching reading to African American students, and (e) resources and supports that teachers perceive as necessary for teaching reading to African American students. The findings indicated that elementary teachers would benefit from participating in professional development, which would help them better teach reading to African American students. The study and resulting project may affect local positive social change by increasing teacher knowledge about the learning needs in reading among African American students, leading to an eventual increase in reading achievement among African American students at the study school

    Navigating racialized contexts: the influence of school and family socialization on African American students' racial and educational identity

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    Within the United States, African American students experience school socialization that exposes them to racial segregation, economic stratification, and route learning masked as education. Consequently African American families are compelled to engage in socialization practices that buffer against the adverse influences of racism, oppression, and dehumanization that threaten African American students' pro-social identity development within a racialized society. To investigate how African American students' develop their racial and educational identity within this racialized context I conduct a qualitative investigation to (a) explore African American students' perceptions of the socialization experiences they identify as salient influences on their racial and educational identity; (b) theoretically deconstruct the racialized contexts (i.e., secondary educational institutions) within which African American students are socialized prior to entering college; and (c) examine how variations in African American students' post-secondary contexts differentially reflects their identity development at predominately White institutions (PWIs) and historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). I utilize critical race theory (CRT) and the Phenomenological Variant of Ecological Systems Theory (PVEST) to explore African American students' counternarratives while simultaneously deconstructing the racialized context in which they develop their racial and educational identities. Findings from this study reveal that schools adversely impact African American students' pro-social educational and racial identity development. At a micro-level schools socialize African American students through tracking them into advanced placement, honors, general education, and special education programs. In addition schools engage in macro-level socialization practices that restrict African American students' postsecondary options, skew their perceptions of postsecondary opportunities, and provide substandard preparation for educational advancement. Such institutional practices perpetuate whiteness as property through the right to exclude African American students from access to educational resources; and by maintaining a favorable reputation for white students while perpetuating the characterization of black students as intellectually inferior. Findings also illustrate how African American families engage in racial socialization that includes the educational socialization of African American students through educational modeling, educational continuation, and educational trailblazing. This study yields implications for families, secondary institutions, post-secondary institutions, and future research that promotes educational equity for African American students

    Education ain\u27t black: the disidentification of African American students

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    In this thesis, I will discuss the influence of education on the identity formation of African American students. Based on the scholarly literature in education theory, I will argue in Bourdieuan theory education, formal education, fails to accommodate the specific needs of African American students because education influences African American students to develop constructions of “whiteness that education reinforces. As education attempts to uphold the “status quo” of American society, education simultaneously forces African American students to question the relevance of education. In questioning the relevance of education through high-achieving African American students’ use of language and pursuit of academic achievement, low-achieving African American students offer a critique of education that characterizes education as a “white-dominated” system where individuals must embody whiteness in order to achieve social acceptance. As a result, African American students choose to “disidentify” with education rather than to assimilate into White culture to avoid being identified as “white”− speaking Standard English, following rules and regulations, and maintaining a high grade point average. This critique of education− though not an anti-intellectual response to education because most African Americans still view education as a means to social mobility− signifies education does not educate African American students but instead produces “white” African American students in order to reproduce societal norms. I will also propose the incorporation of self-knowledge into critical education will facilitate an awareness of personal history and self-worth among African American students not only to disrupt an educational structure of inequality but also to foster a positive self-concept within these students

    Changing the social environment in an elementary school to reduce dropout predictors for African American students

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    Dropping out of school is a serious problem in the United States, especially for African American students. School systems have implemented various prevention and intervention programs to reduce the dropout rate of African American students with only limited success. These programs have generally not included a focus on social climate. Research clearly indicates social climate is directly related to specific behavior and academic predictors of dropout especially for African American students. This study is an examination of an unintentional racism workshop for teachers in a public elementary school, designed to reduce dropout predictors in African American students. The unintentional racism workshop was designed to assist teachers in creating a less threatening environment for African American students while reducing dropout predictors such as low grades, high absences, and discipline problems. This research did not demonstrate significant improvements in student variables such as grades, number of absences, and number of discipline referrals, after one year of implementation, but it did provide important implications and recommendations about future research into dropout prevention programs for African American students

    The Effect Engagement and Positive Relationships have on African American Students\u27 Math Success in a Large Suburban High School

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    Nationwide, African American students have significantly lower advanced placement credits, standardized test scores, and grades (Musu-Gillette, Brey, McFarland, Hussar, Sonnenberg, 2017). The literature review will explore reasons why African American students are underperforming and emphasize the different methods that can lead to higher academic achievement in math. Data from multiple articles were investigated, and the similarities and differences between the influences and best practices for African American students were addressed. Once these best practices were identified, a case study was conducted and conclusions were drawn. This action research project will focus on how engagement and relationships can increase mathematical performance for African American students

    Factors that Affect the Decision-Making Process of African American Students

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    There is only a 9 % representation of African American students on colleges campuses across the country compared to 72.9% of Caucasian students. There are many reasons that affect African American students\u27 decisions to participate in higher education. Colleges across the country are making strides to recruit minority students. However, in order for colleges to increase their minority enrollment, particularly with African American students, they must understand the factors that affect African Americans students\u27 decisions to participate in higher education. Personal, economic, academic, and social factors were examined to understand African American students\u27 reasons for enrolling or not enrolling in post-secondary education institutions

    The Invisible Wall: Exploring the Experiences of African-American Students at CCCU Institutions

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    African-American students who attend a CCCU institution do not complete their degrees as frequently as other student groups. The average gap at CCCU institutions between “overall and Black graduation rates is more than 19%. This is greater than the gap at other private institutions” (Smith, 2009a, p. 80). While the six-year graduation rate for African-American students at private universities averages 51%, colleges and universities in the CCCU average only 36%. CCCU graduation rates are 9.5% lower than other private institutions due to CCCU affiliation alone. “CCCU affiliation was the only variable to have a significantly more negative association with Black graduation rates than with overall graduation rates” (Smith, 2009a, p. x). This study examined the experiences of African-American students within the context of Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU) institutions. While previous research explored African-American graduation rates, the unique spiritual context of Christian colleges and institutions in the CCCU had not been adequately studied. The purpose of this research was to explore the perceptions of African-American students regarding their experiences at CCCU institutions in order to identify the barriers and hindrances encountered by these students in their pursuit of a degree. A qualitative, case-study methodology was utilized to conduct nine focus groups with African-American students at three CCCU institutions in the Western region. The sample was comprised of 51 African-American students who had completed at least four semesters at the institution. Themes unique to each school were identified and a cross-case analysis was conducted. The findings indicated the experiences of African-American students at CCCU institutions were similar to other predominantly White institutions without a spiritual affiliation. The unique context of the spiritual environment did not create an environment that promoted African-American student success and did not positively impact African-American students according to their expectations. The findings indicated there are aspects of the environment at CCCU institutions which can be improved to enhance the experiences of African-American students

    Disproportionate Representation of African Americans with Exceptionalities

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    The majority of school corporations across the nation have a disproportionate number of African American students with exceptionalities. Disproportionality means that a group within a category is being represented more or less than what would be expected from the proportions in the general population. Disproportionate in this case means there is a higher proportion of African American students in Special Education than there is in the general student population. The purpose of this study is to determine whether teacher attitudes or student self-sabotage play a role in the underrepresentation of African American students in Gifted/Talented programs and the overrepresentation of African American students in Special Education. Teachers completed surveys via Survey Monkey. The survey was not able to answer the question of why African Americans are overrepresented in Special Education and underrepresented in Gifted and Talented programs locally or nationally. This survey does not show a definitive answer to the question of whether African American students or their parents are choosing to not be included in Gifted and Talented programs or whether African American students are knowingly neglecting their education, however based on the teacher’s answers it appears that teachers feel that some students are choosing to avoid the G/T classes/curriculum/label. Also it appears many teachers feel G/T classes are not equally accessible to African American students and it seems that most teachers feel that attitude is crucial in both students and teachers in determining either G/T or special education

    Black Space On A White Campus; Exploring The Relationship Between African American Students And The Physical Structure Of The University Of Mississippi

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    At the University of Mississippi, despite institutional efforts to distance the present from the past, issues of race continue to influence the campus and the experiences of African-American students. This thesis examines the relationship between the physical structure of the university of Mississippi campus and African American students, and investigates the creation of counter-publics. this thesis analyzes works in critical race theory, higher education, and social geography to argue that the whiteness of the university of Mississippi campus creates social and educational barriers for African American students. Furthermore, along with being surrounded by whiteness, African American students lack any physical representation of their own. As a result, these students must create their own safe spaces, or counter-publics. with this theory as the framework, this thesis uses a qualitative method, conducting 11 interviews with African American students and alumni to explore the phenomenon of counter-publics at the University of Mississippi. Collectively, these interviews speak to the black student experience at the University of Mississippi; from awareness to the racial climate to experiencing the racial prejudices to finding and creating black spaces for themselves. Ultimately, this thesis argues these black counter-places prove problematic for while they do support the needs of African American students they are disconnected from the rest of the university, and therefore, black students remain visitors on their own campuses. Keywords: counter-publics, counter-spaces, black space, higher education, African American students, University of Mississippi