7,060 research outputs found

    Electrochemical sensing platform for simultaneous detection of 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine using RGO-Cu2O/Fe2O3modified screen-printed graphite electrode

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    Asensitive electrochemical sensor was developed using reduced graphene oxide RGO-Cu2O//Fe2O3nanocomposite for 6-mercaptopurine detection based on a facile fabrication method. The surface morphology and structural composition of this nanocomposite wereevaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), andFourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The screen-printed graphite electrode (SPGE) modi-fied with RGO-Cu2O/Fe2O3nanocomposite (RGO-Cu2O/Fe2O3/SPGE) indicated excellent elec-trochemical properties to detect 6-mercaptopurine. The linear dynamic range was estimated between 0.05 and 400.0 μM for 6-mercaptopurine detection, with a limit of detection of 0.03 μM.Also, RGO-Cu2O/Fe2O3/SPGE sensor showed good activity for simultaneous detection of 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine. In the coexistence system of 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine, two clear and well-isolated voltammetricpeaks were obtained by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Additionally, the proposed sensor was examined for applicability by determining6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine in real samples, and the recovery in the range of 97.5-103.0 % was obtained

    Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system

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    Background: Iron oxide nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their use in magnetic recording tape, ferrofluid, magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and treatment of cancer. The specific morphology of nanoparticles confers an ability to load, carry, and release different types of drugs. Methods and results: We synthesized super paramagnetic nanoparticles containing pure iron oxide with a cubic inverse spinal structure. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that these Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be successfully coated with active drug, and thermogravimet-ric and differential thermogravimetric analyses showed that the thermal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine (FCMP) was markedly enhanced. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the FCMP nanocomposite were generally spherical, with an average diameter of 9 nm and 19 nm, respectively. The release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP nanocomposite was found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. In order to improve drug loading and release behavior, we prepared a novel nanocomposite (FCMP-D), ie, Fe3O4 nanoparticles containing the same amounts of chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine but using a different solvent for the drug. The results for FCMP-D did not demonstrate "burst release" and the maximum percentage release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP-D nanocomposite reached about 97.7% and 55.4% within approximately 2,500 and 6,300 minutes when exposed to pH 4.8 and pH 7.4 solutions, respectively. By MTT assay, the FCMP nanocomposite was shown not to be toxic to a normal mouse fibroblast cell line. Conclusion: Iron oxide coated with chitosan containing 6-mercaptopurine prepared using a coprecipitation method has the potential to be used as a controlled-release formulation. These nanoparticles may serve as an alternative drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer, with the added advantage of sparing healthy surrounding cells and tissue

    Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for maintenance of surgically-induced remission in Crohn’s disease

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    Background Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory condition. Many patients fail to achieve remission with medical management and require surgical interventions. Purine analogues have been used to maintain surgically-induced remission in CD, but the effectiveness of these agents is unclear. Objectives The objectives were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of purine analogues for maintenance of surgically-induced remission in CD. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception to 30 April 2014: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Functional Bowel Disorders Group Specialized Trials Register).We also searched the reference lists of all included studies, and contacted personal sources and drug companies to identify additional studies. The searches were not limited by language. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared purine analogues to placebo or another intervention, with treatment durations of at least six months were considered for inclusion. Participants were patients of any age with CD in remission following surgery. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and extracted data. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The primary outcome measures were clinical and endoscopic relapse as defined by the primary studies. Secondary outcomes included adverse events, withdrawal due to adverse events and serious adverse events. Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis where patients with missing final outcomes were assumed to have relapsed. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for dichotomous outcomes. The Chi2 and I2 statistics were used to assess heterogeneity. The overall quality of the evidence supporting the primary outcomes and selected secondary outcomes was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Main results Seven RCTs (n = 584 patients) were included in the review. Three studies compared azathioprine to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA).One small study compared azathioprine to both 5-ASA and adalimumab. One study compared azathioprine to placebo and another study compared 6-mercaptopurine to 5-ASA and placebo. One small study compared azathioprine to infliximab. Three studies were judged to be at low risk of bias. Four studies were judged to be at high risk of bias due to blinding. The study (n = 22) comparing azathioprine to infliximab found that the effects on the proportion of patients who had a clinical (RR 2.00, 95% CI 0.21 to 18.98) or endoscopic relapse (RR 4.40, 95% CI 0.59 to 3.07) were uncertain. One study (n = 33) found decreased clinical (RR 5.18, 95% CI 1.35 to 19.83) and endoscopic relapse (RR 10.35, 95% CI 1.50 to 71.32) rates favouring adalimumab over azathioprine. A pooled analysis of two studies (n = 168 patients) showed decreased clinical relapse rates at one or two years favouring purine analogues over placebo. Forty eight per cent of patients in the purine analogue group experienced a clinical relapse compared to 63% of placebo patients (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.94). A GRADE analysis indicated that the overall quality of the evidence supporting this outcome was low due to high risk of bias (one study was single-blind) and sparse data (93 events). One study (87 patients) found a reduction in endoscopic relapse rates favouring 6-mercaptopurine over placebo. Seventeen per cent of 6-mercaptopurine patients had an endoscopic relapse at two years compared to 42% of placebo patients (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.83). A GRADE analysis indicated that the overall quality of the evidence for this outcome was low due to very sparse data (25 events). A pooled analysis of five studies (n = 425 patients) showed no difference in clinical relapse rates at one or two years between purine analogues and 5-ASA agents. Sixty-three per cent of patients in the purine analogues group experienced a clinical relapse compared to 54% of 5-ASA patients (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.34). A GRADE analysis indicated that the overall quality of the evidence supporting this outcome was very low due to high risk of bias (two open-label studies), sparse data (249 events) and moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 45%). There was no difference in endoscopic relapse at 12 months between azathioprine and 5-ASA (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.17; 1 study, 35 patients). A GRADE analysis indicated that the overall quality of the evidence for this outcome was very low due to high risk of bias (open-label study) and very sparse data (26 events). There was a reduction in endoscopic relapse at 24 months favouring 6-mercaptopurine over 5-ASA patients. Seventeen per cent of 6-mercaptopurine patients had an endoscopic relapse compared to 48% of 5-ASA patients (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.72; 1 study, 91 patients). A GRADE analysis indicated that the overall quality of the evidence for this outcome was low due to very sparse data (29 events). Adverse events that required withdrawal were more common in the purine analogue group compared to 5-ASA. Twenty per cent of patients in the purine analogue group withdrew due to adverse events compared to 10% of 5-ASA patients (RR 2.07, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.39; 5 studies, 423 patients).The results for withdrawal due to adverse events between purine analogues and placebo or for other comparisons were uncertain. Commonly reported adverse events across all studies included leucopenia, arthralgia, abdominal pain or severe epigastric intolerance, elevated liver enzymes, nausea and vomiting, pancreatitis, anaemia, exacerbation of Crohn’s disease, nasopharyngitis, and flatulence. Authors’ conclusions Purine analogues may be superior to placebo for maintenance of surgically-induced remission in patients with CD, although this is based on two small studies. The results for efficacy outcomes between purine analogues and 5-ASA agents were uncertain. However, patients taking purine analogues were more likely than 5-ASA patients to discontinue therapy due to adverse events. No firm conclusions can be drawn from the two small studies that compared azathioprine to infliximab or adalimumab. Adalimumab may be superior to azathioprine but further research is needed to confirm these results. Further research investigating the efficacy and safety of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in comparison to other active medications in patients with surgically-induced remission of CD is warranted

    Synthesis and anticancer activity evaluation of Novel 6 mercaptopurine derivatives.

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    A series of five (6- mercaptopurine derivatives) have been synthesized as disulfide, Schiff base, Oxadiazole and amide products and the activity as anticancer was evaluated against three types of cancer lines. The pilot studies indicated that compound 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were the active compounds, but only compound (1) reviewed in detail .The reaction progress and products purity were checked by thin layer chromatography. The target chemical structures of compounds and intermediates were proved by their physicochemical properties as melting points, infrared spectroscopy, and elemental microanalysis (CHNS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H1NMR)  Keywords: cancer, 6 -mercaptopurine, disulfide, penicillamin

    Dietary polyphenols influence antimetabolite agents: methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine and 5-fluorouracil in leukemia cell lines

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    Polyphenols have been previously shown to sensitize leukemia cell lines to topoisomerase inhibitors. Here, we assess the effects of five polyphenols when used alone and in combination with antimetabolites: methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine and 5-fluorouracil; in lymphoid and myeloid leukemia cells lines, and non-tumor control cells. The effects of combined treatments were investigated on ATP and glutathione levels, cell-cycle progression, DNA damage and apoptosis. Polyphenols antagonized methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in most leukemia cell lines. This was associated with reduced DNA damage and increased glutathione levels, greater than that seen following individual treatments alone. In contrast, 5-fluorouracil when combined with quercetin, apigenin and rhein caused synergistic decrease in ATP levels, induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in some leukemia cell lines. However, antagonistic effects were observed when 5-fluorouracil was combined with rhein and cis-stilbene in myeloid cell lines. The effects were dependant on polyphenol type and chemotherapy agent investigated, and cell type treated. Interestingly treatment of non-tumor control cells with polyphenols protected cells from antimetabolite treatments. This suggests that polyphenols modulate the action of antimetabolite agents; more importantly they antagonized methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine actions, thus suggesting the requirement of polyphenol-exclusion during their use

    Charge Transfer-oxy Radical Mechanism for Anti-cancer Agents

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    The proposal is advanced that anti-cancer drugs generally function by charge transfer resulting in formation of toxic oxy radicals which destroy the neoplasm. Electrochemical studies were performed with some of the main types of agents: iminium ions (adenine iminium from alkylating species, iminium metabolite of 6-mercaptopurine, nitidine, other polynuclear iminiums) and metal complexes (Pt(II)diaquodiammine-guanosine, copper salicylaldoximes). Reduction potentials ranged from -0.4 to -1.2 V. Literature data for quinones are presented and radiation is discussed. Based on the theoretical framework, a rationale is offered for the carcinogen-anti-cancer paradox and the role of antioxidants