High humidity fabrication of rGO incorporated perovskite absorber and MoS2 electrode for prospective inverted PSC

Abstract

Methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3) is a perovskite material that is widely used in perovskite solar cells due to its potential for high power conversion efficiency. However, it is sensitive to humid environments, heat, oxygen and UV radiation, which can cause it to degrade and negatively affect crystal growth and the morphology of the material. This can ultimately affect the efficiency of the solar cell. Therefore, MAPbI3 is typically produced at a low humidity, which requires expensive equipment. The aim of this research study is to propose a facile fabrication process for fully solution-processable inverted perovskite solar cells employing reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based material under high humidity conditions suitable for the weather in Malaysia. Overall, the research design was divided into three phases. The aim of phase 1 is to study the influence of incorporating sulfonated rGO (srGO) into the MAPbI3 absorber layer for the deposition of a high-quality thin film under open-air conditions with high relative humidity. Three different samples were prepared with different weight percentage (wt%) of srGO: 0% (T), 50% (TS B) and 15% (TS D). The morphology of the srGO-MAPbI3 films was improved by the addition of srGO, resulting in fewer defects and larger perovskite grain sizes approaching micron size. In phase 2, the study aimed to determine the optimal process parameter of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) composite with rGO as a viable solution-processed top electrode for an effective electron-collecting electrode by taking advantage of Taguchi analysis. The results of the Taguchi analysis showed that a ratio of rGO:MoS2 (1:1), a heating temperature of 75°C, and a heating period of 15 minutes were the optimal parameters for the electrode manufacturing process. The discovered optimal parameters were deployed to fabricate rGO:MoS2 composite electrode that showed a promising electrical conductivity of 9.36 Ω/sq. In phase 3, the device performance of the inverted perovskite solar cells with the designated configuration of ITO/CuSCN/srGO-MAPbI3/PCBM/BCP/rGO-MoS2 was analyzed by numerical simulation with SCAPS-1D. The results proved that the device performance for the samples was affected by the addition of srGO to the absorber layer. The 15% srGO sample exhibited the highest PCE of 10.37% with Ag as the top electrode. However, when the conventional electrode was replaced with a rGO-MoS2 composite electrode, the PCE of the same sample was improved to 13.23%, with a significant increase in FF. In summary, the findings of this research study indicate that incorporation of srGO into the MAPbI3 absorber layer can improve the morphology of the srGO-MAPbI3 films, resulting in fewer defects and larger perovskite grain sizes. The study also provides insight into the use of rGOMoS2 composite material as a workable solution-processed top electrode for an effective electron-collecting electrode, particularly in inverted configuration of perovskite solar cells. The numerical simulation results showed that the device performance of the samples could be improved by replacing Ag with rGO-MoS2. The findings of this study could have significant implications for the growth of cost-effective, solution-processed perovskite solar cells under high relative humidity

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Last time updated on 14/02/2024

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