Relaciones Bilaterales De El Salvador Con Estados Unidos En El Período 2014-2023

Abstract

Foreign policy constitutes an institutional mechanism of a state, formed by a set of carefully analyzed, balanced, and articulated actions that facilitate relations with other countries. This type of policy is intrinsically linked to a state's domestic national policy and utilizes diplomacy as a fundamental tool for its implementation. It must be formulated considering the goals and interests of both the state and its wider society. This encompasses both specific objectives, such as cooperation and trade agreements, and broader engagement in bilateral and multilateral policies. From this perspective, governments develop their foreign policy based on a combination of factors: their own interests, the actions of other international actors, and their adherence to guiding principles. Foreign policy can thus serve to maintain or increase a state's presence and influence in international politics, whether through alliances or divergence from other actors, all within the framework of public international law. Drawing from an academic approach, this research analyzes the political-diplomatic relations between El Salvador and the United States (USA) from 2014 to September 2023, examining them through the lens of international law and diplomatic history from a Salvadoran perspective. This period witnessed a significant shift in government, from an administration aligned with Latin American values to one challenging the status quo of a traditional two-party system that held power for three decades. Furthermore, the research explores how the Salvadoran state's recent actions, particularly across its executive and legislative branches, reflect a departure from a foreign policy heavily reliant on the United States, suggesting a potential shift towards paradigms that may not always align with the decisions of this global power.Foreign policy constitutes an institutional mechanism of a state, formed by a set of carefully analyzed, balanced, and articulated actions that facilitate relations with other countries. This type of policy is intrinsically linked to a state's domestic national policy and utilizes diplomacy as a fundamental tool for its implementation. It must be formulated considering the goals and interests of both the state and its wider society. This encompasses both specific objectives, such as cooperation and trade agreements, and broader engagement in bilateral and multilateral policies. From this perspective, governments develop their foreign policy based on a combination of factors: their own interests, the actions of other international actors, and their adherence to guiding principles. Foreign policy can thus serve to maintain or increase a state's presence and influence in international politics, whether through alliances or divergence from other actors, all within the framework of public international law. Drawing from an academic approach, this research analyzes the political-diplomatic relations between El Salvador and the United States (USA) from 2014 to September 2023, examining them through the lens of international law and diplomatic history from a Salvadoran perspective. This period witnessed a significant shift in government, from an administration aligned with Latin American values to one challenging the status quo of a traditional two-party system that held power for three decades. Furthermore, the research explores how the Salvadoran state's recent actions, particularly across its executive and legislative branches, reflect a departure from a foreign policy heavily reliant on the United States, suggesting a potential shift towards paradigms that may not always align with the decisions of this global power.La política exterior constituye un mecanismo institucional de un Estado, formada por un conjunto de acciones, que, de manera analizada, equilibrada y articulada, permite la relación con otros países. Esta política no puede estar separada de la política nacional doméstica de un Estado y utiliza, como herramienta fundamental para su ejecución, la diplomacia.  Debe estar elaborada tomando en cuenta los objetivos e intereses de cada Estado y la sociedad en general. Es decir, enfocada en objetivos concretos de cooperación mutua, establecimiento de acuerdos comerciales y también en objetivos más abstractos, como las políticas a nivel bilateral y multilateral.  Desde esa perspectiva, los gobiernos de turno elaboran su política exterior según sus intereses y para responder al comportamiento de otros actores internacionales, o bien pueden actuar de manera general con sus principios; es decir, por medio de la política exterior, mantener o aumentar su presencia e influencia en la política internacional, ya sea de forma favorable o menos favorable con relación a otros actores internacionales, siempre en los marcos y principios de derecho internacional público. En ese contexto, en el presente trabajo se desarrollan, desde un enfoque académico, las relaciones político-diplomáticas entre El Salvador y Estados Unidos en el período del 2014 a septiembre de 2023, desde la perspectiva del derecho internacional y la historia diplomática de El Salvador. Es el momento en que ocurre un cambio de gobierno, de una administración supuestamente apegada a preceptos de la izquierda latinoamericana, a un gobierno que rompe con el statu quo marcado por un bipartidismo de corte tradicional que por treinta años mantuvo el poder. Asimismo, se toman como relevantes las últimas acciones del Estado Salvadoreño, sus órganos ejecutivos, judicial y legislativo, permeados de un cambio en esa política exterior dependiente de los Estados Unidos de América, hasta una permuta de paradigma opuesto a las decisiones de esta potencia mundial

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