RAZNOLIKOST UPORABE IMENA BOJA U OPISIMA UČENIKA MLAĐE ŠKOLSKE DOBI

Abstract

In the phase of language acquisition process that starts when a child reaches the first year of age and lasts until the third year when a child has gained command over the basics of the mother tongue, nouns and verbs are the most important parts of speech that children use in the process of communication. Language acquisition will depend on a number of factors: a child's gender, the number of children in the family, a child's environment, the media they consume, the way older members of the family speak to the child, attending kindergarten, parents' education and the organic idiom that a child is exposed to. At that early age a child names everything that surrounds them thus gaining knowledge about the world around them. Colours are a part of a child's world and after naming things and people, the child starts acquiring the names of primary colours. In the same way, if a child is learning a foreign language, one of the first words to be learned are the names of the colours so the content of numerous cartoons intended for nursery school children is connected with colours. With time, a child expands their vocabulary acquiring new words, listening to stories and especially fairy tales that are rich with various adjectives and colour names in denotative and connotative meanings. It is interesting that children often use colours to describe people, exterior and interior space both in speaking and writing. Even though their knowledge about colours increases with age, in the active lexis there are very often only basic colours: blue, red, yellow, brown, black, white and green. Therefore, it is the goal of this research to examine how younger school children (7 to10-year- olds) use colours in their descriptions of people, exterior and interior space. The research was made in the form of an experiment taking place in the Croatian language (mother tongue) lesson during which the students had to activate the lexemes connected with colours using texts about colours and language play. After that, the students wrote compositions in which active use of colours in written expression was tested. The research confirmed the expectation that students use up to five basic colours in their speech and a small number of different adjectives which implies that younger school children's vocabulary size is getting smaller despite numerous spoken language impulses that children today receive.U procesu usvajanja jezika u jezičnoj fazi, koja započinje kada dijete navrši prvu godinu, pa sve do treće godine, kada dijete ovlada temeljima materinskoga jezika, imenice i glagoli temeljne su vrste riječi koje djeca koriste u procesu komunikacije. Usvajanje jezika ovisit će o mnogim čimbenicima: spolu djeteta, broju djece u obitelji, okolini kojoj je dijete izloženo, medijima koje dijete konzumira, načinu obraćanja starijih ukućana, uključenosti u dječji vrtić, obrazovanju roditelja te organskom idiomu kojemu je dijete izloženo. U toj ranoj dobi dijete imenuje sve što ga okružuje te na taj način upoznaje svijet oko sebe. Boje su sastavni dio njegova svijeta te vrlo brzo nakon što imenuje određenu stvar ili osobu započinje usvajati imena osnovnih boja. Jednako tako, ukoliko dijete uči strani jezik, jedan od privih poticaja usmjeren je ovladavanju imena boja pa su tako i mnogi crtani filmovi namijenjeni djeci jasličke dobi sadržajno povezani s bojama. S vremenom dijete proširuje svoj vokabular usvajajući nove riječi, slušajući priče te osobito bajke koje obiluju raznolikim pridjevima i uporabom boja u denotativnom, ali i konotativnom značenju. Zanimljivo je da djeca boje često rabe u opisu osobe, vanjskoga i unutrašnjega prostora, kako u usmenom, tako i u pisanome obliku. Iako svoje znanje o bojama s godinama proširuju, vrlo često u aktivnom leksiku ostaju prisutne tek temeljne boje: plava, crvena, žuta, smeđa, crna, bijela i zelena. Upravo zato cilj je ovoga istraživanja ispitati koliko djeca rane školske dobi (7. - 10. godine) u svom pisanom radu koriste boje u opisu osobe, unutarnjeg i vanjskog prostora. Istraživanje će biti eksperimentalno tako što će se učenicima održati jedan sat Hrvatskoga (materinskoga) jezika koji će aktivirati lekseme vezane uz boje uz pomoć tekstova o bojama i jezičnim igrama. Potom će učenici pisati sastavke kojima će se provjeriti aktivna uporaba „boja“ u pisanome izrazu. Istraživanjem je potvrđeno da će učenici u svojim radovima upotrijebiti do pet osnovnih boja te vrlo malen broj različitih pridjeva, što upućuje na sve siromašniji rječnik djece mlađe školske dobi unatoč brojnim poticajima kojima su djeca današnjice izložena

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