Location of Repository

Numerical Analysis and Modelling of\ud Transmission Systems for Hybrid Electric\ud Vehicles and Electric Vehicles

By Qinglian Ren


Interest in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) has\ud increased rapidly over recent years from both industrial and academic viewpoints\ud due to increasing concerns about environmental pollution and global oil usage. In\ud the automotive sector, huge efforts have been invested in vehicle technology to\ud improve efficiency and reduce carbon emissions with, for example, hybrid and\ud electric vehicles. This thesis focuses on one design area of these vehicles – the\ud transmission – with the aim of investigating the potential benefits of improved\ud transmissions for HEVs and EVs.\ud For HEVs, a novel transmission developed by Nexxtdrive based on a twin\ud epicyclic design is analysed using a matrix method and its performance is\ud compared with the more common single epicyclic arrangement used successfully\ud in the Toyota Prius. Simulation models are then used to compare the performance\ud of a typical HEV passenger car fitted with these two transmissions over standard\ud driving cycles. The conclusion is that the twin epicyclic offers substantial\ud improvements of up to 20% reduction in energy consumption, though the benefits\ud are sensitive to the driving cycle used.\ud For EVs, most designs to date have used a single fixed ratio transmission, and\ud surprisingly little research has explored whether multi-geared transmissions offer\ud any benefits. The research challenge is whether it is possible to optimise the\ud usage of the electric motor in its region of high efficiency by controlling the\ud transmission. Simulation results of two EV examples confirm that energy\ud consumption benefits are indeed achievable – of between 7 and 14% depending\ud on the driving cycle.\ud Overall, the original aspects of this work – the analysis and modelling the twin\ud epicyclic gearbox; the analysis and modelling the twin epicyclic system in a vehicle\ud and a comparison of the results with single epicyclic system; and the analysis and\ud modelling of EVs with and without a transmission system of varying levels of\ud complexity – have shown that there are worthwhile performance benefits from\ud using improved transmission designs for low carbon vehicles

Topics: sub_automotiveengineering
OAI identifier: oai:sure.sunderland.ac.uk:3693

Suggested articles



  1. (2007). A Comparative Study of Supervisory Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicle." doi
  2. (2003). A New Road: the technology and potential of hybrid vehicles. UCS publications, The Union of Concerned Scientists Report.
  3. (2005). A-ECMS: An Adaptive Algorithm for Hybrid Electic Vehicle Energy Management. doi
  4. (2002). ADVISOR: A systems analysis tool for advanced vehicle modelling."
  5. (2006). Application of genetic algorithm for optimization of control strategy in parallel hybrid electric vehicles." doi
  6. Brochure for Integrating Technologies for Low Carbon. Integrating Technologies for Low Carbon, Norfolk, Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
  7. (2004). Circulating mechnaical power in a power-split hybrid electric vehicle transmission."
  8. (2005). Comparative Assessment of Hybrid Vehicle Power Split Transmissions."
  9. (2007). Consumer Ready Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle.
  10. (2004). Control of a parallel hybrid powertrain; optimal control." doi
  11. (2000). Control strategies for parallel hybrid vehicles. doi
  12. (2008). Controller design for hybrid vehicles - State of the art review. doi
  13. (2007). Crolla (2007b). Analysis of a continuously variable transmission based on a twin epicyclic power split device. SAE doi
  14. (2007). Defining the General Motors 2 mode hybrid transmission. doi
  15. (2003). Development of Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network control and advanced emissions modelling for parallel hybrid vehicles, doi
  16. (2009). Duty Cycles, Standardisation and Validation of Low Carbon Power Systems. Low Carbon Vehicle Power Systems?Delivering Next Generation Power seminar,
  17. (2003). Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Electric Vehicles."
  18. (2009). Effect of geared transmissions on electric vehicle drivetrains. doi
  19. (2006). Efficiency of the planetary gear hybrid powertrain." doi
  20. (2003). Electric and hybrid vehicles; design fundamentals., doi
  21. (2009). Electric cars - are they really 'green'? Low-carbon vehicles 2009, London, Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
  22. (2009). Electricis get teeth." Automotive Engineer(June
  23. (1971). Electromechanical Transmission for Hybrid Vehicle Power Trains - Design and Dynamometer Testing (TRW Systems Group)." doi
  24. Emadi (2009). Dual-mode power split system for hybrid vehicles. doi
  25. (2007). Emerging energy efficient technologies for hybrid electric vehicles." doi
  26. (2004). Emissions and Fuel Economy Trade-Off for Hybrid Vehicles Using Fuzzy Logic." doi
  27. (2005). Energy Management Strategies for Vehicular Electric Power Systems." doi
  28. (2003). Energy Management Strategy for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Truck. Proc American Control Conf, doi
  29. (2001). Energy management strategy for parallel hybrid truck. doi
  30. (2003). Epicyclic Gear Train Solution Techniques with Application to Tandem Bicycling, Virginia Polytechnic Institute.
  31. (2004). Evaluation of 2004 Toyata Prius hybrid electric drive system interim report, doi
  32. (2003). Extended Fuzzy C-Means and Genetic Algorithms to Optimize Power Flow Management in Hybrid Electric Vehicles." Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making doi
  33. (2007). Fuel Economy Improvement Strategy for Light Duty Hybrid Truck based on Fuel Consumption Computational Model Using Neural Network. 17th IFAC World Congress. doi
  34. (2007). Fuel Economy Improvements for Urban Driving: Hybrid vs. Intelligent Vehicles." doi
  35. (2007). Function doi
  36. (2002). Fuzzy torque distribution control for a parallel hybrid vehicle." doi
  37. (2006). General Motors innovative hybrid and two mode hybrid systems. FISITA
  38. (2001). General Supervisory Control Policy for the Energy Optimization of Charge-Sustaining Hybrid Electric Vehicles." doi
  39. (2005). Global optimization of energy management laws in hybrid vehicles using Dynamic Programming." doi
  40. (2008). HEV systems overview, an intorduction to hybrid electric vehicles, Hybrid electric vehcle short course programme,
  41. (2005). Hybrid Electric Vehicle Design Based on A Multi-Objective Optimization Evolutionary Algorithm, doi
  42. (2006). Hybrid Electric Vehicle Propulsion System Architectures of the eCVT Type." doi
  43. (2007). Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Architecture and Motor Drives." doi
  44. (2000). Improvement of a highly efficient hybrid vehicle and integrating super low emissions. doi
  45. (2001). Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in Simulink and its Use for power Management Studies. doi
  46. (2005). Launch and drivability performance enhancement for a parallel hybrid vehicle with a torque-controlled IVT. Powertrain and Fluid Systems Conference, doi
  47. (1997). Matrix system for automatic vehicle transmission design."
  48. (2000). Mechatronic design and control of hybrid electric vehicles." doi
  49. (2007). Model-Based fuel Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Variable Structure Control Systems." Trans ASME, doi
  50. (2007). Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles." doi
  51. (2004). Modelling and Control of a medium-duty hybrid electric truck. Heavy Vehicle Systems." doi
  52. (2001). Modern electric vehicle technology,
  53. (2007). New Outlook for Energy: A View to 2030.
  54. (2007). On-line Suboptimal Control Strategies for a Powerassist hybrid Electric Vehicle. doi
  55. (2007). Optimal brake torque distribution for a four-wheel drive hybrid electric vehicle stability enhancement." doi
  56. (2001). Optimal control of a parallel powertrain: from global optimization to real time control strategy. 18th International Electric Vehicle Symposium, doi
  57. (2007). Optimal control of fuel economy in parallel hybrid electric vehicles." Proc IMechE, , Part D;
  58. (2007). Optimal power split in a hybrid electric vehicle using direct transcription of an optimal control problem." Mathematics and Computers in Simulation. doi
  59. (2007). Optimization of Control Strategy for a single-shaft parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle." doi
  60. (2006). Otimisation design of an energy management strategy for hybrid vehicles."
  61. (2002). Overview of power management in hybrid electric vehicles." doi
  62. (2005). Peaking of World Oil Production: Impacts, doi
  63. (2009). Performance comparisons of single and dual epicyclic power split transmissions for hybrid electric vehicles. EAEC doi
  64. (2006). Performance modelling and optimization of a novel multi mode hybrid powertrain." doi
  65. (2009). PoqwePhase 75 Traction System, UQM Technologies.
  66. (2006). Power combining single regime transmissions for automotive vehicles. doi
  67. Power management and control strategies for a hybrid vehicle with a dual mode power split transmission. doi
  68. (2007). Power split transmissions for hybrid electric vehicles. doi
  69. (2007). Power Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), Argonne National Laboratory. doi
  70. (2005). Regenerative braking strategies for a parallel hybrid powertrain with a torque-controlled IVT. doi
  71. (2007). Rule-based energy management strategies for hybrid vehicles." doi
  72. (2007). Rule-Based Equivalent Fuel Consumption Minimization Strategies for Hybrid Vehicles. 17th IFAC World Congress. doi
  73. (2006). Set values for a power split hybrid electric vehicle through numerical optimisation." doi
  74. (2000). Simulation and assessment of power control strategies for a parallel hybrid car." doi
  75. (2006). Supervisory Control of an HEV Using an Inventory Control Approach."
  76. (2006). System-Level Model and Stochastic Optimal Control for a PEM Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle." Trans ASME, doi
  77. (2007). The algebraic design of transmissions and EVTs. doi
  78. (2008). The Automotive Chassis Volume2: System Design, doi
  79. (2001). The electric and hybrid electric car. doi
  80. (1981). The Lever Analogy: A New Tool in Transmission Analysis." Society of Automotive Engineers. doi
  81. (2006). The new two mode hybrid system for the global cooperation. 27th International Vienna Motor Symposium."
  82. (2005). The QSS Toolbox Manual."
  83. (2007). The State of the Art of Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles." doi
  84. (2007). Three Types of Simulation Algorithms for Evaluating the HEV Fuel Efficiency. doi
  85. Transportation and climate change: opportunities, challenges and longterm strategies. AN IPECA workshop,
  86. (1999). Unified Modelling of Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drivetrains." doi
  87. (2009). Unravelling and resolving hybrid electric vehicle design conflicts. Low-carbon vehicles 2009, London, Institute of Mechanical Engineers.
  88. (2007). Using GPS Travel Data to Assess the Real World Driving Energy Use of Plug-In hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). Washington, Transportation Research Board,86th Annual Meeting. doi
  89. Vaughan (2006b). "Dynamic Simulation Model of a Hybrid Powertrain and Controller Using Co-Simulation- Part II: Control Strategy."
  90. (2000). Vp-Sim: a Unified Approach to Energy and Power Flow Modeling Simulation and Analysis of Hybrid Vehicles. Future Car Congress, doi
  91. (2006). Which energy source for road transport in the future? A comparison of battery, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles." doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.