Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Investigations into the Involvement of Tie2 in Endothelial: Mural Cell Interactions

By Benjamin John Dunmore


The interaction of endothelial cells and mural cells play a critical role in the stabilisation and maturation of the embryonic and postnatal vasculature. Several pathological situations exhibit poor and abnormal endothelial and mural cell association. In this study immunohistochemical analysis revealed dysmorphogenic microvessels within atherosclerotic plaques are lacking mural cells. Similar dysmorphogenic mural cell poor vessels were also observed in human myocardium following laser induced myocardial injury. In both cases elevated VEGF was detected associated with the mural cell poor vessels. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling mural cell recruitment assays were established to examine directly smooth muscle cell migration and adhesion between smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in culture. These assays were used to study the involvement of the angiopoietin/Tie2 system in recruitment and retention of mural cells. Ang-l was observed to stimulate endothelial-directed migration of putative mural cell precursors. The ligand also increased adhesion between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. To investigate further the possible role of Tie2 in interaction between endothelial cells and mural cells a mutant form of the receptor found in inherited venous malformations (VM) was studied. The form of VM associated with this mutant receptor is characterised by dysmorphogenic, enlarged mural cell vessels. Surprisingly, mutant Tie2 did not inhibit endothelial-induced mural cell migration or adhesion between endothelial cells and mural cells.\ud Taken together these data suggest Tie2 has a role in regulating endothelial:mural cell interaction.\ud Furthermore, the presence of mural cell poor vessels in the atherosclerotic plaque, injured myocardium and inherited VM may reflect escape of these vessels from regression by the presence of survival factors in the case of the plaque and injured myocardium, or constitutive anti-apoptotic signalling from mutant Tie2 in the case of VM

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2004
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2000). 11e-l receptor tyrosine kiDase endodomain interaction with SHP2: potential signaling mecbaJdsms and roles in angiogenesis.
  2. 1993.lDhibition of vasmlar endothelial growth factor-illduced aagiogeDesis suppresses tumour growth in 'Vi'Vo.
  3. (2003). 1be anti-inftammatory endotheUal tyrosine kinase TIel interads with a novel nudear factor-kappaB inhibitor ABIN-2. Circulation Research.
  4. (1997). 1be biology of vascular endotheDai growth factor. Endocrine Reviews.
  5. (1996). 1be cateniD/cadherin adhesion system is localized in synaptic junctiODS bordering traDsmitter release zones.
  6. (1998). 1be Crooniaa lecture, 1m. ]be phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine: its role in ceU growth and disease.
  7. (1998). 1be endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase tie-I is upregulated by hypoxia and vascularendotheUal growth factor.
  8. (1993). 1be related FLT4, FLTI, and DR receptor tyrosine kiDase5 show distinct expression pattems In human fetal endothelial ceDs.Journal o/Experimental Medicine.
  9. (1999). 1be role of pbospboinositide 3-kinase Upid products In ceO function.
  10. 2001.1" vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological fonction in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy.
  11. (1999). 4: divergiDg gene counterparts in mice and humans.
  12. (1996). A family of She related proteins with CODServed PI'B, em and sm regions.
  13. (1995). A gene for famiDaI venous malformatioDS maps to chromosome 9p in a second large kindred.
  14. (1999). A human protein kinase Bgamma with regulatory phosphorylation sites in the activation loop and in the C-tennlnal hydrophobic domain.
  15. (2000). A mechanism for modulation of ceUuIar responses to VEGF: activation of the integrins. Molecular Cell.
  16. (1996). A model for central syuaptic junctional complex formation based OR the differential adhesive specificities of the cadheriDS.
  17. (1994). A new communication system between hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells in liver through vascular endothelial growth factor and Fit tyrosine kinase receptor (FIt-1 and KDRIF1k-l).
  18. (1992). A novel endotbeHal ceU surface receptor tyrosine kinase with extracellular epidermal growth factor homology domaiDS. Molecular Cell Biology.
  19. (1992). A novel transforming protein (SHC) with an sm domain Is ImpUcated In mitogenic signal tnmsduction.
  20. (1998). A plastidty window for blood vessels remodelling is defined by pericyte coverage of the preformed endothelial network and is regulated by PDG~
  21. (1987). A possible Dew member of tyrosine kinase family, human FRT sequence, is highly conserved in vertebrates and located on human chromosome 13.
  22. (1993). A potential role for N-c:adherin in mediating endothe6a1 ceU-smooth muscle cell interactions in the rat vasculature. Laboratory Investigation.
  23. (1991). A receptor tyrosine Idnase eDNA isolated ftom a population of enriched primitive hematopoeitic ceUs and exhibiting dose genetic linkage to c-kit.
  24. (1997). A requiremeDt for F1k1 in primitive and dellnitive baematopoiesis and vasculogenesis.
  25. (1998). A role for Src in signal relay by the platelet-tierived growth factor alpba receptor.
  26. (1991). A Rtrvviral oncogene, AId, encoding a serine-threonine kinase containing an Sm-like region.
  27. (2001). A single autopbospborylatlon site on KDR/FIk-l is essential for VEGF-A-dependent activation of PLC-pmma and DNA synthesis in vascular endotheUaI cells.
  28. (2003). A unique autophosphorylation on 'De1JTek mediates Dok-R phosphotyrosJne bindiDg domain and function. Molecular and Cellular Biology.
  29. (1995). A unique signal tnmsduction from FLT tyrosine kinase, a receptor for vascular eDdotheUal growth factor VEGF.
  30. (1996). Abnormal blood vessel development and lethality in embryos IackiDg a single VEGF aDele.
  31. (1994). Abnormal kidney development and hematological disorders
  32. (2002). AbnormaUties in pericytes on blood vessels and endotheHal sprouts in tumoun.
  33. (2000). Activin receptor-Db kinase 1 modulates transforming growth factorbeta 1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis.
  34. (2002). ADgiopoietiD-2 displays VEGF-dependent modulation of capillary stmcture and endothe6al cell survival in viWJ.
  35. (1998). ADgIopoietln-1 induces sprouting angiogenesis in 'Vitro. Current Biology.
  36. (2001). ADgIopoietln-1 reduces VEGFstim.ulated 1eakoqte adhesioa to endothelial cells by reduciDg ICAM-I, VCAM-l, and ESeIectin expressioa. Cardiovascular Research.
  37. (2001). Adhesion recepton of vascular smooth muscle cells and their functions.
  38. (1999). Akt mediates cytoprotection of endothelial cells by vascular endothelial growth factor in an anchorage-clependent manner.
  39. (1997). Akt signaling: linking membrane events to Ute and death decisions.
  40. (1996). Ala, a pleckstrin homology domain contaiDing kinase, is activated primarily by phosphorylation.
  41. (1999). AlleUe and locus heterogeneity in inherited venous malformations. Human Molecular Genetics.
  42. (1989). An activated form of
  43. (1989). An endotheBal ceU growth factor from the mouse neuroblastoma ce116ne NB41. Growth Factors.
  44. (1998). Analysis of blood vessel maturation processes during cycUc ovarian angiogenesis. Laboratory Investigation.
  45. (2002). Analysis of mural ceU recruitment to tumour vessels.
  46. (1999). Angfopoletfn-l is an apoptosis survival factor for endothelial cells.
  47. (2002). Angiogenesis and Iymphangiogenesis in tumors: IDsights from intravital mic:roscopy.
  48. (1999). Angiogenesis and the atherosclerotic carotid plaque: An associatioD between symptomatology and plaque morphology.
  49. (1991). Angiogenesis during human extraembryonic development involves the spatlotemporal control of PDGF Ugand and receptor gene expression.
  50. (2002). Angiogenesis ill chronically isdulemic human heart following percutaneous myocardial revascularisation.
  51. (1995). Angiogenesis in cancer, vascular, rheumatoid and other disease.
  52. (2003). Angiogenesis in health and disease.
  53. (2000). Angiogenesis in myocardial laser "revascularisation".
  54. (1985). Angiogenesis is stimulated by a tumor-derived endothelial ceD growth factor.
  55. (1997). Angiopoieitn-2, a oatonl antaaoDist for 11e-2 that cUsrupts ill viWJ angiogenesis.
  56. (2001). AngiopoietiD and De signaling pathways In vasadar development.
  57. (2003). AngiopoietiDs have distinct modular domaiDs essential for receptor binding, dlmerization and superdustering.
  58. (2002). Angiopoietin-2 stimulates migntion and tube-Ub structure formation of murine brain capillary endotheUaI cells through c-Fes and c-Fyn.
  59. (2003). Angiopoietin-l and angiopoietin-2 share the same binding domains in the 1ie-2 receptor involving the ftnt Ig-Iike loop and the epidermal growth factor-Db repeats.
  60. (1999). Angiopoietin-l and its receptor TIe-2 participate in regulation of capillary-Db tubule formation and survival of endothelial ceUs.
  61. (2000). Angiopoietin-l is an anti-permeabiUty and antiinflammatory agent in vitro and targets ceO junctions. Circulation Research.
  62. (2003). Angiopoietin-l.induced Pl3-kinase activation prevents neuronal apoptosis.
  63. Angiopoietin-regulated recruitment of vascular smooth muscle cells by endotheHal-derived heparin bindiDg EGF-Iike growth factor.
  64. (2000). Angiopoietln-l induces endothelial ceO sprouting through the activation of focal adhesion kinase and plasmin secretion. Circulation Research.
  65. (2000). Angiopoietln-l protects the adult vasculature apinst plasma leakage.
  66. (2000). AntiproUferative effect 01 UTP on human arterial and venous smooth muscle ceII&
  67. (2000). Aogiopoietin-l inhibits endotbeUal ceO apoptosis via the Ald/survivin pathway.
  68. (1994). Assignment of a locus for dominantly inherited venous malformations to chromosome 9p.
  69. (1999). Autophosphorylation of KDR in the kinase domain is required for muimal VEGF-stimulated kiDase activity and receptor interoaHzation.
  70. (1998). Autoregulatory meebanisms in proteintyrosine kinases.
  71. (1997). Basic fibroblast growth factor-lnduced angiogenic phenotype in mouse endotheBum: A study of aortic and microvascular endotheUaI ceO Unes. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology.
  72. (2003). Benefits of targeting both pericytes and endothelial cells in the tumour vasadature with kinase inhibiton.
  73. (1992). Binding sites for vascular endothelial growth fador are locali• on endotheUal cells in adult rat tissues.
  74. (2001). Biological action of angiopoietin-2 in a fibrin matrix model of angiogenesis is associated with activation of TIel.
  75. (1996). Blood vessel formation: wbat is its molecular basis?
  76. (2001). Both platelet-derlved growth factor receptor (pDGFR)-alpha and PDGFR-beta promote murine fibroblast ceU migration.
  77. (1999). Brain macropbages: On the role of pericytes and perivascular cells.
  78. (1996). Cadherin function is required for axon outgrowth in retinal ganglion cells in vivo.
  79. (1999). Catheter-based percutaneous myocardial laser revascularisation In patients with end ... coronary artery disease.
  80. (1999). Cellular survival: a play in three Akts. Genes and Development.
  81. (1984). Ceo attachment activity of IIbronectin can be duplicated by small synthetic fragments of the molecule.
  82. (1998). Chemotactic properties of angiopoietin-1 and -2, ligands for the endothe6al-speclflc receptor tyrosine kinase TIe2.
  83. (1998). Chimaeric aoaIysis reveals role of PDGF receptors in all muscle lineages.
  84. (2003). ChImera analysis supports a predominant role of PDGFRbeta in promoting smooth-muscle ceU chemotaxis after arterial injury.
  85. CPo 1989. 10T1J2 cells: An in vitro model for molecular genetic analysis of mesodermal determination and differentiation. Environmental Health Perspectives.
  86. (1996). Cytoplasmic sequestration of p53 in cytomegalovirus-infedecI human endotheUal cells.
  87. (1999). Defective angiogenesis In mice lacldng endoglin.
  88. (1997). Development defects in mouse embryos lacking N-cadherin. Developmental Biology.
  89. (1996). Development of the aortic vessel wall as defined by vucular smooth muscle and extraceUuIar matrix markers. Developmental Biology.
  90. (1994). Dfft'erent signal transduction properties 01 KDR and Flt1, two recepton lor vascular endotheUal growth factor.
  91. (1998). Differential loaaIisation of VE- and N-aadherins In human endothelial cells: VE-cadherin competes with N-cadherin for junc:tionalloaillzation.
  92. (1995). Differentiation oftbe endotheUum.
  93. (1999). Direct actioDS of angiopoietin-l on human eodotheDum: evidence for network stabilization, ceU survival, and interaction with other angiogenic growth lacton. Laboratory Investigation.
  94. (2001). Direct ceU adhesion to the angiopoietins mediated by integrins.
  95. (1994). Direct interaction between Shc and the platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor.
  96. (2003). Dismantling of cadherin-mediated ceD-ceD contacts modulates smooth muscle cell pro6feration.
  97. (2002). DissectiDg tumour pathophysiology using intravital microscopy.
  98. (1993). Distinct rat genes with related proftles of expression dellne a tie receptor tyrosine Idna8e faJDlly.
  99. (1995). Distinct roles of the receptor tyrosine kinases TIe-I and Tie-2 in blood vessel formation.
  100. (2001). Dok-R plays a pivotal role in angiopoietin-l-dependent migration through recruitment and activation of Pat.
  101. (1994). Dominant negative and targeted null mutations in the endotbeHai receptor tyrosine kinase, tek, reveal a critical role in VasculogeDesU of the embryo. Genes and Development.
  102. (1997). Embryonic endothe6al cells transdifferentiate into mesenchymal cells expressing smooth muscle actiD.s in vivo and in vitro.
  103. (1989). Embryonic oripns and assembly 01 blood vessels. American Review of Respiratory Disease.
  104. (1995). Endothelial ceU transplantation.
  105. (2003). Endothelial-pericyte interactions in angiogenesis.
  106. (2002). Endothelium-specific platelet-derived growth factor-B ablation mimics diabetic retinopathy.EMBOJournal.
  107. (2003). EndotheUal and nonendotheUal sources of PDGF-B regulate pericyte recruitment and influence vascular pattern formation in tumours.
  108. (1999). EndotheUal ceDs modulate the proUferation of mural ceO precunon via platelet-derived growth factor-DD and heterotypic ceU contact. Circulation Research.
  109. (2000). EndotheUal cell survival and apoptosls in the tumor vasculature.
  110. (1995). EndotheUal receptor tyrosine Idnase-! involved in angiogenesis.
  111. (1992). Enhanced expression of the tie receptor tyrosine kinase In endotheUaI ceUs during neovascularisation.
  112. (1994). Evidence for a functional role of Shc proteins in mitogenic signaling induced by InsuHn, InsuUn-Uke growth factor-I, and epidermal growth factor.
  113. (1999). Evidence for distinct signaling properties and biological responses induced by the PDGF receptor alpha and beta subtypes. Growth Factors.
  114. (2000). Evidence for heterotypic interaction between the receptor tyrosine Idna .. 11e-l and 11e-2.
  115. (1995). Exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor induces malformed and hyperfused vessels during embryonic neovascularisation.
  116. (1995). ExpressiOD of the fms-lilre tyrosiDe Idaase 4 gene becomes restricted to iympbatic eDdotheUum duriDg development.
  117. (1995). Expression of endothelial ceU-speciftc receptor tyrosine kinase and growth factors in human brain tumors.
  118. (1995). Failure of blood-island formatioD and vasculogenesis in F1k-l delldent mice.
  119. (1984). FamlUaI vascular maIformatiOll& Report of 25 members of one family. Clinical Genetics.
  120. (1993). Fetal Over kinase lis a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor and is selectively expressed
  121. (1984). Fibrinogea and fibriD.
  122. (1991). First steps of tumor-related angiogenesis.
  123. (1996). Flt-l but Dot KDR/FIk-l tyrosine kinase is a receptor for placenta growth factor, which Is related to vascuJar endothelial growth factor. Cell Growth Differentiation.
  124. (1998). Flt-l lacking the tyrosine kinase domain is suf6cient for normal development and angiogenesis in mice.
  125. (1992). FLT4 receptor tyrosine kiDase contains seven immunoglobuUn-Uke loops and is expressed in multiple human tissues and ceU Dnes. Cancer Research.
  126. (1994). Formation of Shc-Grb2 complexes is necessary to induce neoplastic transformation by overexpresslon of Shc proteins.
  127. (2000). Fractals and cancer.
  128. (1977). Functional correlation between cell adhesive properties and some ceO surface proteins.
  129. (1996). Functional importance of 8111ino-terminal domain of Shc for interaction with insulin and epidermal growth factor recepton in a phosphorylationindependent manner.
  130. (1997). Functional importance of She tyrosine 317 on insulin signaling in Rat! fibroblasts expressing iDsuIin recepton.
  131. (1994). GlIoblastoma growth inhibited in vivo by a dominant-negative Flk-l mutant.
  132. (1996). Growth factor ell'ects on a model of vessel formation. Surgery Forum.
  133. (1999). Growth fadon acting via endothelial ceU-spedfic receptor tyrosine kiDa~: VEGFs, angiopoietins, and epbrins in vascular development.
  134. (1982). Hemanaiomas and vascular malformations in infants and children: A classification based on endotheUal characteristics. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.
  135. (1996). Heterozygous embryoDic letbality induced by targeted inactivation of the VEGF gene.
  136. (2001). Hypoxia-indudble factor-2alpba (HIF-2alpba) is involved in the apoptotic response to hypoglycemia but not to hypoxia.
  137. (1996). IdeDtUleatioD of a natural soluble form. of the vascular endotbe6al growth factor receptor. FLT-l, and its heterodimersiation with KDR.
  138. Identification of a new endothelial ceU growth factor receptor tyroslDe IdDase.
  139. (1989). Identification of angfogeuie activity and the dOniDg and expression of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor.
  140. (1992). Identification of the DR tyrosine kinase as a receptor for vascular endothelial cell growth factor.
  141. (2001). Identillc:ation of tyrosine residues in vascular endotheHal growth factor receptor-2JFLK-l involved in activation of phospbatidyJinositol 3-kinase and cell proliferation.
  142. (2001). Identlftcatlon ola novel AlO-binding inhibitor of nuclear factor-KB activation termed ABIN·2.
  143. (1999). IdentUlcatiou of TeWI1el bindiDg partDers. BlndiDg to a multifondioD81 docking site mediates ceO sunivaland migration.
  144. (2000). Increased matrix metooproteiDase-' activity in UDStable carotid plaques. A potential role in acute plaque dismption.
  145. (1985). Induction of angiogenesis by bovine brain derived class 1 heparin-binding growth factor.
  146. (1987). inhibition of capillary eodotheUal ceU growth by pericytes and smooth muscle cells.
  147. (1989). Inhibition of endothelial ceO movement by pericytes and smooth muscle ceUs: activation of a latent transforming growth factor-beta I-Hke molecule by plasmin during co-cuiture.Journal of Cell Biology.
  148. (2003). Inhibition of plaque neovascularisation reduces macrophage accumulation and progression of advanced atherosclerosis.
  149. (1994). Involvement of Shc in insulin- and epidermal growth factor-induced activation of p21ras. Molecular and Cellular Biology.
  150. (1996). Isolation of angiopoietin-l a ligand for the tie-2 receptor, by secretion-trap expression doning.
  151. (2001). Lack of pericytes leads to endothelial hyperplasia and abnormal vascular morphogenesis.
  152. (1993). lDIu"bitioD of vascular endotbeUal growth factor activity by aD endogenously eDCOClecl soluble receptor.
  153. (1999). Leakage-resistant blood vessels in mice tnmsgeDicaUy overupressmg angiopoietln-l.
  154. (1987). Macrophage-Induced angiogenesis is mediated by tumour necrosis factor-alpba.
  155. (1997). Mapping of the sites for Ugand binding and receptor dimerisation at the extraceDular domain of the vascular endotheUaI growth factor receptor FLT-l.
  156. (1995). Matrix metalloproteiaases and cardiovascular disease. Circulation Research.
  157. (1996). Mechanism of activation of protein kiDase B by insulin and IGF-l.
  158. (1998). Mechanisms and consequences of activation of protein kinase BtAld. Current Opinions in Cell Biology.
  159. (2001). Mechanistic etreds on autophosphorylation on receptor tyrosine Idnase catalysis: enzymatic clIanderizatfon of
  160. (1997). Medumisms of angiogenesis.
  161. (1994). Mice deftdent for PDGF B show reDBl, cardiovascular, and hematological abnormaUties. Genes and Development.
  162. (1994). Microvascular endotheUal ceU soddinK of ePTFE vascular grafts: Improved patency and stability of the ceUuIar Uniag.
  163. (1991). Microvascular pericytes: a review of their morphological and functional characteristics. Histology and Histopathology.
  164. (1996). Migration of human monocytes in response to vascular endotheBai growth factor (VEGF) is mediated via the VEGF receptor fit-I.
  165. (1999). Molecular and biological properties of vascular endotheBal growth factor.
  166. (1987). Molecular cloning of the akt oncogene and its buman bomolopes AKTl and AK'f2: amplification of AKT1 in a primary buman gastric adenocarcinoma.
  167. (1991). Molecular doning and characterisation of a Dovel putative protein-serine kinase related to the cAMP-dependent and protein kinase famlUes.
  168. (1993). Molecular doning and dlaraderizati_ of mouse tU and uk receptor tyrosine kinase geDeS and their expression in hematopoietic stem cells.
  169. (1991). Molecular doning and identiftcation of a serine/threonine protein kinase of the second-messenger subfamily.
  170. (1989). Molecular doning: a labontory manual 2-Edition.
  171. (2003). Molecular regulation of vessel maturation.
  172. (1998). Morphogenesis of the first blood vessels. Annals New York Academy of Sciences.
  173. (2000). Myocardial revascularisatlon by laser.
  174. (1999). N-c:adherin expression in endothelial cells during early angiogenesis in the eye and brain of the chicken: relation to blood-retina and blood-brain barrier development.
  175. (2000). N-c:adherin mediates pericytic-endothelial interaction during brain angiogenesis in the chicken. Developmental Dynamics.
  176. (1991). Neurite outgrowth in response to transfected N-CAM and N-c:adherin reveals fundamental differences in neuronal responsiveness to CAMs.
  177. (2003). Neuron-specific ablation of PDGF-B is compatible with normal central nervous system development and astrogHal response to inJury.
  178. (2001). Nongenotropic, sex-noDSpedftc sipaling through the estrogen or androgen receptors: dissociation from traDScriptional activity.
  179. (1996). Not aU She's roads lead to Has. Trends in Biochemical Sciences.
  180. (1990). Nucleotide sequence and expression of a novel buJlUlll receptor-type tyrosine kinase gene (fit) closely related to thefms family.
  181. (2000). Openings between defective endotheUal ceUs explain tumor vessel leakiness.
  182. (2003). p38 MAPK inhibition is criticaUy involved in VEGFR-2-medfatecl endotheUaI ceU survivaL Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.
  183. (1998). Paracrine PDGF-B/PDGF-Rbeta signaHng controls mesanglal cell development In kidney glomendi.
  184. (1998). PDGF, TGF- fi and heterotypic ceD-ceD interactions mediate endothelial ceD-induced recruitment of lOTl/2 cells and their differentiation to a smooth muscle fate.
  185. (1994). PDGF·BB modulates endothelial proBteration and angiogenesis in "iIro via PDGF beta-receptors.
  186. (1992). Pericyte involvement in capillary sprouting during angiogenesis in vitro.
  187. (1997). Pericyte loss and microaneurysm formation in PDGF-B-deftdent mice.
  188. (2002). Pericytes and the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.
  189. (1996). Pericytes in the microvasculature. Cardiovascular Research.
  190. (1998). Phosphoinositide 3·kiDase: the key switch medumism in insulin signaling.
  191. (1989). Pituitary follicular cells secrete a novel heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endotheUal cells.
  192. (1998). Platelet-clerived growth factor-BB induces apoptosJs in cultured vascular smooth muscle ceDs derived from human saphenous vein. Biochemical Society transactions.
  193. (1995). Platelet-derived growth factor induces apoptolis in growth-arrested murine fibroblasts.
  194. (2001). PO/AId functional insights from poetic models. Nature Reviews Molecular and Cellular Biology.
  195. (1987). Polypeptide growth factors: roles in normal and abnormal cell growth. Annual Review of Cell Biology.
  196. (1999). Potential roles of metalloprotease mediated ectodomain deavage in sipaling by the endotheUaI receptor tyrosine kinase 11e-l. Laboratory Investigation.
  197. (1985). Primary stnlcture of bovine brain acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF).
  198. (1998). Protein kiDa8e B (c-Akt): a multifunctiooal mediator of phosphatidyUnositol3-1dnase activation.
  199. (1992). proteins is impUcated in activation of the Has pathway by tyrosine Idnases.
  200. (1990). Purified N-cadherin is a potent substrate for the rapid induction of neurite outgrowth.
  201. (1990). PurillcatiOD and NB2-terminal amino acid sequence of guinea pig tumour-secreted vascular permeabiUty factor.
  202. (2003). Rat aorta-derived mural precursor ~ express the 11e2 receptor and respond directly to stimulation by angiopoietiDs.
  203. (1995). Rat aortic smooth mUlde ceU become pericytes during angiogenesis in vitro.
  204. (1999). Receptor activation: when a dimerizatioD is not enough. Current Biology.
  205. (2002). Regulation and targets of receptor tyrosine kinases.
  206. (2003). Regulation of angiogenesis by hypoxia: role of the HIF system.
  207. (1993). Regulation of development and differentiation by the extraceUuIar matrix.
  208. (1997). Regulation of neuronal survival by the serine-threonine protein kinase AId.
  209. (1994). Regulation of signal traDsduction and signal diversity by receptor oUgomerization. Trends in Biochemical Sciences.
  210. (1998). Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment.
  211. (1996). Regulation of vascular endotheUal growth factor by oxygen in a model ofretinopatby 01 prematurity. Archives ofOphtholmology.
  212. (1994). Requirement of vascular integrin avp3 for angiogenesis.
  213. (1996). Requisite role of angiopoietin-l, a Ugand for the tie-2 receptor, during embryo angiogenesis.
  214. (2002). Role of AId signaling in vucular bomeostasis and angiogenesis. Circulation Research.
  215. (1999). Role of PDGF-B and PDGFR-beta in recruitment of vascular smooth muscle ceUs and pericytes during embryonic blood vessel formation in the mouse.
  216. (1999). Role of PI 3-kinase in angiopoietin-l mediated migration and attaclunent-dependent survival of endothelial cells.
  217. (1995). Role of the Flt-! receptor tyrosine kinase in regulating the assembly of vascular endotheUum.
  218. (1995). Role of the VEGF·f1t receptor system in normal tumour angiogenesis.
  219. (1997). Role of translocation in the activation and function of protein kinase B.
  220. (1999). Sbc dominant negative disrupts cell cycle progression in both GO-Gl and Gl-M of ErbBl-positive breast cancer cells. Cell Growth and Differentiation.
  221. (1999). Selective ablation of immature blood vessels in established human tumon follows vascular endotheHai growth factor withdrawal.
  222. (1988). Signal transduction by allosteric receptor oHpmerization.
  223. (1999). Signaling by distinct classes 01 phosphoinositlde 3-kiMWfJ. Experimental Cell Research.
  224. (1997). Signaling through scaffold, anchoring, and adaptor proteias.
  225. (1997). Signaling vascular morphogenesis and maintenance.
  226. (2001). Signaling via Shc family adapter proteins.
  227. (1999). SignaUnI throuP phosphomosltide 3-Idnases: the lipids take center stage. Current Opinions in Cell Biology.
  228. (2001). SipaI transduction by VEGF receptor-l wild type and mutant proteins. Cellular Signaling.
  229. (2001). Soluble N-cadherin stimulates fibroblast growth factor receptor dependent neurite outgrowth and N-cadherin and the fibroblast growth factor receptor co-duster in cells.
  230. (2000). Stmcture of the TIel RTK domain: seIf-iDhibition by the nucleotide binding loop, activation loop, and C-termInaI taiL Structure with Folding and Design.
  231. (1997). SuppressioD of c-Myc-iadaced apoptosis by Bas sipaliDg through PI(3)K and PD.
  232. (1999). Targeted deftciency or cytosoUe tnmcation of the VE-cadberin gene in mice impaln VEGF-mediated endotheUal survival and angiogenesis.
  233. (1992). Tek, a novel tyrosine kinase gene located on mouse chromosome 4, is expressed in endotheHai cells and their presumptive precursors.
  234. (2001). The basis of baematopoietic defects of PDGF-B and PDGFRbeta deftdent mice.
  235. (1993). The endotheHalspecific tyrosine kinase, tek, is a member of a new subfamily of receptors.
  236. (2002). The endotheUaI receptor tyrosine kinase Del activates phosphaUdyUnositol 3-1dnase and Akt to inbfbit apoptosis. Molecular and Cellular Biology.
  237. (1992). The fins-like tyrosine kinase, a receptor for vasadar endothelial growth factor.
  238. (1994). The impDcatioDS of angiogenesis for the biology and therapy of cancer metastasis.
  239. (1995). The monogenic and mitogenJc respoases to HGF are ampUDed by the Shc adaptor protein.
  240. (1994). The mouse tie receptor tyrosiDe IdDase gene: expression during embryoDic angiogenesis.
  241. (1986). The pericyte-a review. Tissue Cell.
  242. (1997). The phosphorylated 1169-tyrosine containing region of ftt-l kinase (VEGFR-l) is a nuUor binding site for PLCpmma.
  243. (1997). The PI 3-ldnaseJAkt signaling pathway deliven an anti-apoptotic signaL Genes and Development.
  244. (1995). The receptor tyrosine IdDase TIE is required for integrity and survival of vascular endotheDai cells.
  245. (2001). The role of FGF and VEGF in angioblast induction and migration during vascular development. Developmental Dynamics.
  246. (1996). The second immunoglobuHnDb domain of the VEGF tyrosine kinase receptor FIt-I determines Ugand binding and may initiate sigoal transduction cascade.
  247. (2000). The SheA phosphotyrosine doddng protein sensitizes cardiovascular signaling in the mouse embryo.
  248. (1998). The Tekl'1le2 receptor slpaI through a Dovel Dolt-related docking protein,
  249. (2001). The two PDGF ncepton maintain consened sipUng in vivo despite divergent embryological functioDS. Molecular Cell.
  250. (1991). The vascular eDdotheHal growth factor family of polypeptldes.
  251. (1996). The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor Ilt-l mediates biological activities. ImpUcations for a fonctioDai role of placenta growth factor in monocyte activation and chemotaxis.
  252. (1997). The Z30kDa mature form of KDR/FIk-l (VEGF receptor-2) activates the PLC-gamma pathway and partially induces mitotic signals in NIH3T3 fibroblasts.
  253. (1993). Tie-I and tie-2 define another class of putative receptor tyrosine kinase genes expressed in early embryonic vascular system.
  254. (1998). TIEl and TIE2 receptor tyrosine kina .. invenely regulate embryonic angiogenesis by the mechanism of intussusceptive microvascular growth.
  255. (1986). TnmsformiDg growth factor-alpba: a more poteDt angiogenic mediator than epidermal growth factor.
  256. (1986). Transforming growth factor type beta: npld induction of fibrosis and angiogenesis ita RWI and stimulation of collagen formation ita 'Vitro.
  257. (1994). Trk recepton use redundant signal transduction pathways involving SHe and PLC-gamma 1 to mediate NGF responses.
  258. (1983). Tumor cells secrete a vascular permeability factor that promotes accumuiatioD of ascites lluid.
  259. (1998). Tumor induction of VEGF promoter activity in stromal cells.
  260. (1990). Tumor interactions with the vasculature: angiogenesis and tumor metastasis.
  261. (1987). Tumour necrosis factor type alpha, a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell growth in vitro, is angiogenic in vivo.
  262. (1989). Tumour vascular permeability factor stimulates endotheUaI cell growth and angiogenesis.
  263. (1993). Two molecules related to the VEGF receptor are expressed in early endotheUal cells during avian embryonic development. Mechanisms of Development.
  264. (1989). Two putative protein-tyrosine ldnases identified by appUcation 01 the polymense chain reaction.
  265. (1998). Tyrosine 1101 of 11e-2 is the auQor site 01 association of pBS and is required for activation 01 phosphatidyliDositol 3-1dnase and AId. Molecular and Cellular Biology.
  266. (1996). Tyrosine kinaselp2lraslMAP-1dnase pathway activation by estradiol-receptor complex in MCF-7 ceIIs.EMBOJournal.
  267. (1997). Tyrosine phosphorylation sites at amino adds 239 and 240 of She are involved in epidermal growth factor-induced mitogenic signaling that is distinct from Ras/mitogen.-activatecl protein kiDase activation. Molecular and Cellular Biology.
  268. (1996). Vasallar dysmorphogenesis caused by an activating mutation in the receptor tyrosine Idoase TIE2.
  269. (1992). Vasc:ular permeability factor (vascular endothelial growth factor) gene is expressed dift'erentiaUy in normal tissues, macropbages, and tumours. Molecular and Cellular Biology.
  270. (1988). Vascular Birthmarks: Haemanglomas and Vascular MalformatioDS.
  271. (1997). Vascular development: ceUular and molecular regulation.
  272. (1992). Vascular endotbeUaI growth factor induces interstitial collagenase expression in human endothelial cells.
  273. (1995). Vascular endotbeUal growth
  274. (1991). Vascular endotheHal growth factor (VEGF) induces plasminogen activators and plasminogen activator inbIbitor-l in microvascular endothelial cells.
  275. (1998). Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates endotheUal cell survival through the phospbatidyUnositol 3'-kinase/Akt signal traDsduction pathway. Requirement for Flk1/KDR activation.
  276. (1989). Vascular endotheUaI growth factor is a secreted angiogeDic mitogen.
  277. (2002). Vascular endotheUal growth factor modulates the Tie-2:Tie-l receptor complex.
  278. (2001). Vascular endotheUal growth factor/vascular permeability factor: multiple biological activities for promoting angiogeDesis. Tumour Angiogenesis and Microcirculation.
  279. (1999). Vascular endotheUalll"Owth factor (VEGF) and its receptors.
  280. (1993). Vascular permeabiUty factor (VPF, VEGF) iD tumour biology. Cancer and Metastasis Reviews.
  281. (1995). Vascularisation of the mouse embryo: a study of Ok-I, tek, tie, and vascular endotheUa growth factor expression during development. Developmental Dynamics.
  282. (1991). Vasculogenesis, angiogenesis and endotbeUaI ceO dlft'erentiation during embryonic development.
  283. (1999). VEGF prevents apoptosis of human microvascular endothelial cells via opposing effects on MAPK/ERK and SAPK/JNK signaling.
  284. (2001). VEGF·induced activation of phosphoinositide 3-ldnase is dependent on focal adhesion kinase.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.