Location of Repository

Debt, Credit and Business Strategy: The Law and the Local Economy, 1850-1900

By Neil Wood

Abstract

This thesis analyses the business strategies of small firms in Leicester between 1850 and\ud 1900. As the expansion of the town and the local economy proceeded during the nineteenth century, the uncertainties over debt and credit faced by small firms escalated.\ud Confronted by partial or information asymmetry, small firms developed responses and strategies to overcome their commercial anxieties. This thesis explores two important strands: firstly the way in which the County Court system developed and was re-orientated by firms to meet their needs and, secondly, through the formation of a trade protection society to improve the flow of information, collect debt and enhance members' interests. In order to investigate these strategies, the procedures, costs and scale of the County Court system are considered and business exposure to the courts reconstructed. These reveal a consciousness about how the civil law could be used to prioritise debt and credit. Furthermore the trade protection society's position as a credit nexus, facilitating the flow of information between firms and its activities as an exemplar of market practice is investigated. The hand to mouth existence of many of these small firms reinforces the importance of these business strategies. While conducted as a case study of Leicester, the work has relevance for towns and cities of the U. K. and provides a counter-balance to those studies which focus on large-scale enterprises and macroeconomic forces

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 1999
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/10968

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. 4482/27, Leicester County Court Plaint Book 1869;
  2. (1880). 70; Leicester Corporation, `Bye-law for suppressing shouting, bell ringing and other excessive noises in the streets', 29
  3. (1895). 78 By 1895 the firm felt sufficiently secure to approach the Leicestershire Banking Company for an occasional £200 overdraft based on a turnover of £6,000 and a debt level of £1,300 or just over one fifth of turn-over.
  4. A brave and daring folk?. Shopkeepers and trade associational life in Victorian and Edwardian England',
  5. (1964). A history of British trade unions since 1889, I, 1889-1910,
  6. (1958). A history of the National Union of Boot and Shoe Operatives, 1874-1957,
  7. (1936). A hundred years of joint stock banking,
  8. (1908). A modern English biography,
  9. A poor man's system of justice: the London police courts in the second half of the nineteenth century',
  10. (1979). A social history of housing,
  11. Achieving a critical mass while avoiding an explosion: letter-cluster sampling and nominal record linkage',
  12. An Act for the More Easy Recovery of Small Debts
  13. An Act for the More Easy Recovery of Small Debts within the County and Borough of
  14. (1978). An artisan elite in Kentish London,
  15. (1986). An atlas of industrialising Britain,
  16. (1979). An introduction to quantitative methods for historians,
  17. (1984). An urban history horoscope',
  18. (1978). and societies essays in economic history and historical sociology,
  19. Annual Report of Leicester Coal Consumers'
  20. Appliance trading activities of British gas utilities, 1875-1935', Economic History Review,
  21. (1895). Archive Leicestershire Banking Company,
  22. Asian cities and the problems of fire',
  23. Aspects of nineteenth-century small town society: a comparative study from Leicestershire',
  24. Between markets and networks: regional banks in Italy',
  25. (1968). Boots and shoes',
  26. (1986). Brewing and distilling',
  27. British business history: a review of periodical literature',
  28. (1989). British directories: a bibliography and guide to directories published
  29. (1988). British entrepreneurship in the nineteenth century,
  30. (1990). Building by numbers: the life-cycle of Scottish building firms, 1793-1914',
  31. (1993). Buildings and power: freedom and control in the origin of modern building types,
  32. (1975). Business families in Victorian Leicester: a study in historical sociology',
  33. (1986). Business life and public policy: essays in honour of
  34. (1993). business: essays marking the centenary of the incorporation,
  35. Businessmen, the urban middle class and the `dominance' of manufacturers in nineteenth century Britain', Economic History Review,
  36. (1982). Central/local government relations in England: an outline, 1800-1950', Urban History Yearbook,
  37. Civil society and the nature of urbanism:
  38. (1995). Civil society and the nature of urbanism: Britain, 1750-1850', Urban History,
  39. (1995). Civil society,
  40. (1974). Class struggle and the industrial revolution: early industrial capitalism in three English cities,
  41. (1986). Class, power and social structure in British nineteenth century towns,
  42. (1990). Class, sect and party: The making of the British middle classes: Leeds, 1820-1850;
  43. (1977). Coal metropolis:
  44. (1992). Collective action: theory and application,
  45. (1980). Community and the social geography of Victorian cities', Urban History Yearbook,
  46. Complexity, community structure and competitive advantage within the Yorkshire woollen industry',
  47. Concentration and fragmentation: capital, labor and the structure of mid-Victorian Scottish industry',
  48. (1994). Conditions of liberty, civil society and its rivals,
  49. (1995). Consuming places,
  50. Control by coercion: employers' associations and the establishment of industrial order in the building industry of England and Wales, 1860-1914', Business History Review,
  51. Corporation Town Clerk In
  52. (1880). Corporation Town Clerk Out Letters,
  53. (1960). County Chamber of Commerce centenary book, 1860-1960,
  54. (1984). County court and superior court registrars, 1820-1875: the making of a judicial office',
  55. (1955). County History of Leicestershire, vol III-IV,
  56. Credit and the courts: debt litigation in a seventeenth century urban community',
  57. (1983). Credit and thrift and the British working class',
  58. Credit in a rural community',
  59. Debt and credit in Bath's Court of Requests', Urban History,
  60. (1988). Did the late Victorian economy fail? ',
  61. Did Victorian Britain fail?
  62. Directories and the local historian H- Methods of compilation and the work of large-scale publishers', Local History Magazine,
  63. Directories and the local historian I- The evolution and availability of directories', Local History Magazine,
  64. Directories and the local historian III - Directories as sources in local history', Local History Magazine,
  65. Directories Spencer's Map of Leicester,
  66. (1989). Does not include London.
  67. Drawing maps with computers ... or without? ',
  68. (1990). Economic behaviour and institutions: Cambridge surveys of economic literature,
  69. Economic development and industrial dynamism in Victorian London',
  70. (1994). Economics, organisation and management,
  71. (1978). Education and industry in the nineteenth century,
  72. (1984). Eminent practitioners: the new visage of country attorneys,
  73. Employers organisations in mid-Victorian England',
  74. English bankruptcy records and statistics before 1850',
  75. English bankruptcy records and statistics before 1850', Economic History Review,
  76. (1981). English culture and the decline of the industrial spirit,
  77. (1984). English industrial cities of the nineteenth century: a social geography,
  78. (1993). Entrepreneurship and business culture',
  79. (1991). Exploring long term economic change,
  80. Externalities, the market, power structure and the urban agenda', Urban History Yearbook,
  81. (1992). Externalities, the market, power structure and the urban agenda', Urban History Yearbook, 17,1990,99-109;
  82. (1984). Family business in the era of industrial growth: its ownership and management,
  83. Family firms and business networks: textile engineering in Yorkshire, 1780-1830',
  84. (1992). Feeding the Victorian city,
  85. Finance and politics in urban local government in England, 1835-1900',
  86. From packmen, tallymen and perambulating Scotsmen to credit drapers' associations',
  87. From private to public ownership of gas undertakings in England and Wales, 1851-1947: chronology, incidence and causes',
  88. Gentlemanly capitalism and British industry', Past and Present,
  89. (1985). Guide to the historical records of British banking,
  90. Historical alternatives to mass production: politics, markets and technology in nineteenth century industrialisation', Past and Present,
  91. (1909). House of Commons Select Committee on Imprisonment for
  92. (1976). Housing and the spatial structure of the city: residential mobility and the housing market in an English city since the industrial revolution,
  93. (1971). Housing in London',
  94. How railways deal with special classes of traffic: the shoe and leather traffic of Leicester', The Railway Magazine,
  95. Industrial lending by English commercial banks, 1860s-1914: why did banks refuse loans',
  96. (1960). Industrial organisation in Leicester, 1844-1914. A study in changing technology, innovation and conditions of employment', unpublished Ph.
  97. Industrial structure and firm growth: the Sheffield iron and steel industry, 1880-1901', Business History,
  98. Industrialisation and the development of urban business communities: research problems, sources and techniques',
  99. Industry in London: revisions and reflections',
  100. Innovation, industrial structure and the long wave: the British economy, c. 1873-1914',
  101. (1991). Inside the business enterprise: historical perspectives on the use of information,
  102. Institutional economics and business history: a way forward? ',
  103. Institutions and the evolution of modern business: introduction',
  104. (1994). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance,
  105. International business networks: theory and history'
  106. Interorganisational relations in industrial systems: a network approach compared with the transaction cost approach: internationalisation, relationships and networks',
  107. Introduction: banks networks and small-firm finance',
  108. (1991). Investing information: supply and demand in the use of information in American firms, 1850-1920',
  109. Joint-stock company flotation in the cycle, motor-vehicle and related industries, 1882-1914', Business History,
  110. Kelly's Directory of Leicester, 1876,1881,1895. Household Words. Law Times. London Gazette.
  111. (1972). Laissez-faire and state intervention in nineteenth century
  112. (1989). Law and society in England 1750-1950,
  113. (1997). Law in history: histories of law in society,
  114. (1984). Law, poverty and imprisonment for debt, 1869-1914',
  115. (1916). Leicester Coal Consumers' Society Account with
  116. Leicester County Court Equity Suits,
  117. Leicester County Court Index of Liquidation Cases,
  118. Leicester County Court Index to Bankruptcy Registers,
  119. Leicester County Court Minutes of Adjourned Cases,
  120. Leicester County Court Register of Bankruptcy Petitions,
  121. Leicester County Court Register of Receiving Orders,
  122. (1974). Leicester: past and present,
  123. (1849). Leicestershire Trade Protection Society, Inaugural circular,
  124. (1971). Life in Victorian Leicester,
  125. Lodging and poverty in Victorian Leicester: a socio-geographic perspective',
  126. (1994). Making a medical living: doctors and patients in the English market for medicine, 1720-1911,
  127. (1983). Making ends meet: pawnbroking and working class credit,
  128. (1989). Making sense of the census: the manuscript census returns of England and
  129. (1992). Managing the market - regulating the city: urban control in the nineteenth century United Kingdom',
  130. (1990). Managing the market', 204;
  131. Manchester solicitors: forgotten provincials in the development of a professional myth', Manchester Regional History Review,
  132. Manhattan's 14th street vendors' market: informal street pedlars' complementary relationship with New York City's economy', Urban Anthropology,
  133. (1974). Markets and hierarchies,
  134. (1984). Masters and manufacturers: social values and the smaller unit of production in Birmingham, 1800-1850',
  135. Measuring industrial growth from trade directories',
  136. Middle rank consumers and domestic culture in Edinburgh and Glasgow 1720-1840', Past and Present,
  137. (1986). Midland: 150 years of banking history,
  138. (1880). Minute Book, 1880-95, Annual Report,
  139. (1900). Modernisation frustrated: the politics of industrial decline
  140. Money and the structure of credit in the eighteenth century',
  141. (1989). Money, information and uncertainty,
  142. Monthly Circulars,
  143. Multiple source record linkage in a rural industrial community, 1680-1820',
  144. (1978). Municipal socialism, enterprise and trading in the Victorian city', Urban History Yearbook,
  145. Mutual aid and civil society: friendly societies in nineteenth century Bristol', Urban History,
  146. New economic approaches to business history',
  147. (1973). Nominal record linkage by computer and the logic of family reconstitution',
  148. Non-commissioned officers and men: British employers and their supervisory workers, 1880-1920', Social History,
  149. (1987). Occupation and social stratification revisited: the census enumerators' books of Victorian Britain', Urban History Yearbook,
  150. (1913). Ordnance Survey maps: scale 1: 2500. Leicester NW, 1902, sheet XXXI. 10; Leicester NE,
  151. (1960). Parliament of commerce: The story of the Association of British Chambers of Commerce,
  152. Pawnbroking in Victorian and Edwardian Leicester',
  153. Peddling fashion: salesmen, pawnbrokers, tailors, thieves and the second-hand clothes trade
  154. (1987). Perspective, sources and methodology: a comparative study of the middle classes in nineteenth century Leicester and Peterborough', Urban History Yearbook,
  155. Photograph William Chamberlin;
  156. Political economy, interest groups, legal institutions, and the repeal of the Bubble Act in 1825', Economic History Review,
  157. (1987). Poverty in Leicester, 1881-1911: a geographical perspective', unpublished PhD. thesis,
  158. (1981). Property and politics, 1870-1914: landownership, law, ideology and urban development in England,
  159. (1989). Property and power in a city,
  160. (1987). Radicalism, co-operation and socialism; Leicester working class politics,
  161. (1987). Radicalism, co-operation and socialism: Leicester working class politics, 1860-1906,
  162. Rate books: a technique of reconstructing the local economy', Local Historian,
  163. Recent trends in business history',
  164. Record linkage in a proto-industrial community',
  165. Record-linkage and the small family firm: Edinburgh 1861-1891',
  166. Regional bank-industry relations during the mid-nineteenth century: links between bankers and manufacturers
  167. (1900). Report by Board of Trade under section 131 of Bankruptcy Act
  168. (1905). Report of Enquiry by Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing, Retail prices and Standard Rate of Wages in the United Kingdom,
  169. Residential amenity, respectable morality and the rise of the entertainment industry, the case of Blackpool', 1860-1914, Literature and History,
  170. (1970). Retailing in England during the industrial revolution,
  171. (1868). Returns of the Names, Objects, Places of Business, Date of Registration, Nominal Capital, Number of Shares etc. of all Joint Stock Companies Formed or Registered in the City of
  172. (1987). Risk and failure in English business 1700-1800,
  173. Risk, information and noise: risk perception and risk management of French and German banks during the nineteenth century',
  174. (1985). Saving and spending: the working class economy in Britain, 1870-1939,
  175. (1985). Savings and spending: the working class economy in Britain, 1870-1939,
  176. (1990). Scale and scope: the dynamics of industrial capitalism,
  177. Schooling in the city: educational history and the urban variable',
  178. Screening monitoring and incentives in co-operative banks: the case of Italy's casse rurali, 1883-1926, '
  179. (1984). Shopkeepers and master artisans and the historian: the petite bourgeoisie in comparative focus',
  180. (1987). Shopkeepers and society: domestic and principal shopkeepers in Leicester, 1860-1914', unpublished PhD. thesis,
  181. Skilled labour and the choice of technique in Edwardian industry',
  182. Small businessmen and their credit transactions in early nineteenth century Britain',
  183. (1986). Small businessmen and their credit transactions in early nineteenth century Britain', Business History,
  184. Small craft business owners, finance and social relations in nineteenth century rural Perthshire, Scotland',
  185. Small debts and economic distress in England and Wales 1857-1913', Economic History Review,
  186. (1994). Small firms and local economic networks: the seats of the local economy?,
  187. Small town aristocrats of labour and their standard of living, 1840-1914', Economic History Review,
  188. (1992). Social classes and social relations in
  189. (1981). Social history and law reform,
  190. (1985). Social relations and spatial structures,
  191. Source: Annual Summary of Bankruptcy Statistics,
  192. Source: Annual Summary of Bankruptcy Statistics;
  193. Source: General Reports by Comptroller of Bankruptcy, 1870,1871,
  194. (1869). Spatial distribution of Dr Sloane's debts, Leicester County Court,
  195. (1984). Special courts, special law: legal pluralism in nineteenth century England',
  196. Status Enquiry book misfiled amongst the records of H. Staynes & Co. Leather Merchants.
  197. (1981). Studying the middle class in nineteenth century urban Britain', Urban History Yearbook,
  198. Technical education in England, 1850-1926: the uses of the German model',
  199. The `pigmies of commerce' and the working class community: small shopkeepers in England, 1870-1914',
  200. The 1856 Companies Act and the birth and death of firms',
  201. (1981). The aristocracy of labour
  202. The banking crisis of 1878',
  203. (1990). The birth and death of companies: an historical perspective,
  204. (1994). The British brewing industry, 1830-1980,
  205. (1972). The British hosiery and knitwear industry: its history and organisation,
  206. (1970). The British iron and steel industry since 1840,
  207. The challenge of political change: urban history in the 1990s', Urban History,
  208. (1973). The classic slum: Salford life in the first quarter of the century,
  209. (1973). The containment of England,
  210. (1978). The content and reliability of nineteenth century trade directories',
  211. (1984). The county courts and the tally trade, 1846-1914',
  212. The Courts of Requests',
  213. The development of co-operative retailing in England and Wales',
  214. (1841). The development of credit reporting in the nineteenth century,
  215. (1980). The early Scottish limited liability companies, 1856-1895,
  216. (1988). The East Midlands from AD 1000,
  217. The economic characteristics of small craft businesses in rural lowland Perthshire, 1830-1900', Business History,
  218. (1990). The economic history of Britain since 1700, volume 2,1860-1939,
  219. (1995). The economic institutions of capitalism,
  220. (1994). The economics of business enterprise,
  221. The economics of institutions and the sources of growth',
  222. The Edwardian Liberal party and business',
  223. The effect of the American export invasion on the British boot and shoe industry, 1885-1914',
  224. (1991). The emergence of gas and water monopolies in nineteenth-century Britain: contested markets and public control',
  225. (1983). The English seaside resort: a social history, 1750-1914,
  226. The entrepreneur and the British economy, 1870-1914',
  227. (1993). The f rst industrial nation: an economic history of Britain,
  228. The family business: remnant or elixir of the market economy? '
  229. (1994). The family firm in British business, 1780-1914',
  230. The family firm in industrial capitalism: international perspectives on hypotheses and history',
  231. The finance of innovation in late Victorian and Edwardian Britain: possibilities and constraints',
  232. The first five thousand limited companies and their duration',
  233. (1983). The first industrial nation: the economic history of Britain, 1700-1914,
  234. The footwear industry of the East Midlands: Leicestershire to 1911', East Midland Geography,
  235. The growth of the transnational industrial firm in the Unites States and the United Kingdom', Economic HistoryReview,
  236. The history of imprisonment for debt and its relation to the development of discharge for bankruptcy',
  237. (1921). The Leicester gas undertaking,
  238. (1976). The logic of collective action,
  239. (1980). The making of a profession,
  240. (1984). The making of the English working class,
  241. The middle class and the towns and cities of the Industrial Revolution, 1780-1870',
  242. The modern corporation: origins, evolution, attributes',
  243. The money market in the early industrial revolution: the evidence from West Riding attorneys c. 1750-1800', Business History,
  244. The nineteenth century metropolitan economy a revisionist interpretation',
  245. The origins of industrial peace: the case of the British boot and shoe industry',
  246. (1990). The people's health,
  247. (1977). The politics of electoral pressure: a study in the history of Victorian reform agitation,
  248. (1921). The politics of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce,
  249. The problem of externality',
  250. (1991). The production of space,
  251. The professional background of company law pressure groups',
  252. (1984). The pursuit of urban history,
  253. The recruitment of office holders in Leicester, 1861-1914',
  254. (1994). The remaking of the British working-class, 1840-1940,
  255. The resurgent County Court in Victorian Britain',
  256. (1979). The rise and fall of freedom of contract,
  257. (1989). The rise of professional society: England since 1880,
  258. (1980). The shoe and leather industries',
  259. The size of firms in the boot and shoe industry',
  260. The small family firm
  261. The small family firm in Victorian Britain',
  262. (1977). The small shopkeeper in industrial and market towns',
  263. The Smith-Kelham-Langdale nexus: country attorneys, family connections and London business in the early nineteenth century', Lincolnshire History and Archaeology,
  264. The Society of Friends and the family firm, 1700-1830',
  265. The standard of living in the Black Country during the nineteenth century',
  266. (1992). The state, the elite and the market': the visible hand in the British industrial city system',
  267. The survival of small firms',
  268. The talk of the town: human capital, information and the growth of English cities, 1861-1961',
  269. The tramping artisan revisits: labour mobility and economic distress in early Victorian England', Economic History Review,
  270. (1998). The transformation of the economic structure and the persistence of firms in
  271. (1969). The unbound Prometheus,
  272. The urban fiscal problem, 1870-1914: government expenditure and finance in England and Wales', Economic History Review,
  273. The use of geographic information systems in historical demography',
  274. (1972). The use of information about occupation',
  275. (1961). The Victorian suburb,
  276. (1977). The visible hand,
  277. The workshop of the world: steam power and hand technology in mid-Victorian Britain',
  278. (1984). Towards a new history of law and material society in England, 1750-1914', in Law, economy and society, 1750-1914: essays in the history of English law,
  279. Towns and economic growth: some theories and problems',
  280. Transaction costs and the theory of the firm: the scope and limitations of the new institutional approach',
  281. Transaction costs in history',
  282. Urban history and social class: two paradigms', Urban History,
  283. (1976). Urban politics in Victorian Britain: the structure of politics in Victorian cities,
  284. (1985). Urban poverty amongst framework knitters in Leicester during the 1840s',
  285. (1995). Victorian insolvency: bankruptcy, imprisonment for debt and company winding up in nineteenth century England,
  286. (1973). Victorian pressure groups: directions for research',
  287. What help have the banks given British industry? Some evidence on bank lending in the Midlands in the late nineteenth century',
  288. (1992). White collar crime in modern England: financial fraud and business morality, 1845-1929,
  289. (1911). Who's who in Kent, Surrey and Sussex,
  290. (1984). Why the history of the professions is not written',
  291. (1985). Without the law: administrative justice and legal pluralism in nineteenth century
  292. (1985). Without the law: courts of local and special jurisdiction in nineteenth century England',
  293. (1983). Wives and property: reform of married women's property law in nineteenth century England,
  294. Working class housing in Stourbridge',
  295. (1995). Working class self help in nineteenth century England, responses to industrialisation,
  296. Wrestling with the angel: problems of definition in urban historiography',

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.