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The assessment of benchmarks executed on bare-metal and using para-virtualization

By Mark Andrew Baker, Garry Mark Smith and Ahmad Hasaan

Abstract

A\ud full\ud assessment\ud of\ud para-­virtualization\ud is\ud important,\ud because\ud without\ud knowledge\ud about\ud the\ud various\ud overheads,\ud users\ud can\ud not\ud understand\ud whether\ud using\ud virtualization\ud is\ud a\ud good\ud idea\ud or\ud not.\ud In\ud this\ud paper\ud we\ud are\ud very\ud interested\ud in\ud assessing\ud the\ud overheads\ud of\ud running\ud various\ud benchmarks\ud on\ud bare-­‐metal,\ud as\ud well\ud as\ud on\ud para-­‐virtualization.\ud The\ud idea\ud is\ud to\ud see\ud what\ud the\ud overheads\ud of\ud para-­‐\ud virtualization\ud are,\ud as\ud well\ud as\ud looking\ud at\ud the\ud overheads\ud of\ud turning\ud on\ud monitoring\ud and\ud logging.\ud The\ud knowledge\ud from\ud assessing\ud various\ud benchmarks\ud on\ud these\ud different\ud systems\ud will\ud help\ud a\ud range\ud of\ud users\ud understand\ud the\ud use\ud of\ud virtualization\ud systems.\ud In\ud this\ud paper\ud we\ud assess\ud the\ud overheads\ud of\ud using\ud Xen,\ud VMware,\ud KVM\ud and\ud Citrix,\ud see\ud Table\ud 1.\ud These\ud different\ud virtualization\ud systems\ud are\ud used\ud extensively\ud by\ud cloud-­‐users.\ud We\ud are\ud using\ud various\ud Netlib1\ud benchmarks,\ud which\ud have\ud been\ud developed\ud by\ud the\ud University\ud of\ud Tennessee\ud at\ud Knoxville\ud (UTK),\ud and\ud Oak\ud Ridge\ud National\ud Laboratory\ud (ORNL).\ud In\ud order\ud to\ud assess\ud these\ud virtualization\ud systems,\ud we\ud run\ud the\ud benchmarks\ud on\ud bare-­‐metal,\ud then\ud on\ud the\ud para-­‐virtualization,\ud and\ud finally\ud we\ud turn\ud on\ud monitoring\ud and\ud logging.\ud The\ud later\ud is\ud important\ud as\ud users\ud are\ud interested\ud in\ud Service\ud Level\ud Agreements\ud (SLAs)\ud used\ud by\ud the\ud Cloud\ud providers,\ud and\ud the\ud use\ud of\ud logging\ud is\ud a\ud means\ud of\ud assessing\ud the\ud services\ud bought\ud and\ud used\ud from\ud commercial\ud providers.\ud In\ud this\ud paper\ud we\ud assess\ud the\ud virtualization\ud systems\ud on\ud three\ud different\ud systems.\ud We\ud use\ud the\ud Thamesblue\ud supercomputer,\ud the\ud Hactar\ud cluster\ud and\ud IBM\ud JS20\ud blade\ud server\ud (see\ud Table\ud 2),\ud which\ud are\ud all\ud servers\ud available\ud at\ud the\ud University\ud of\ud Reading.\ud A\ud functional\ud virtualization\ud system\ud is\ud multi-­‐layered\ud and\ud is\ud driven\ud by\ud the\ud privileged\ud components.\ud Virtualization\ud systems\ud can\ud host\ud multiple\ud guest\ud operating\ud systems,\ud which\ud run\ud on\ud its\ud own\ud domain,\ud and\ud the\ud system\ud schedules\ud virtual\ud CPUs\ud and\ud memory\ud within\ud each\ud Virtual\ud Machines\ud (VM)\ud to\ud make\ud the\ud best\ud use\ud of\ud the\ud available\ud resources.\ud The\ud guest-­‐operating\ud system\ud schedules\ud each\ud application\ud accordingly.\ud You\ud can\ud deploy\ud virtualization\ud as\ud full\ud virtualization\ud or\ud para-­‐virtualization.\ud Full\ud virtualization\ud provides\ud a\ud total\ud abstraction\ud of\ud the\ud underlying\ud physical\ud system\ud and\ud creates\ud a\ud new\ud virtual\ud system,\ud where\ud the\ud guest\ud operating\ud systems\ud can\ud run.\ud No\ud modifications\ud are\ud needed\ud in\ud the\ud guest\ud OS\ud or\ud application,\ud e.g.\ud the\ud guest\ud OS\ud or\ud application\ud is\ud not\ud aware\ud of\ud the\ud virtualized\ud environment\ud and\ud runs\ud normally.\ud Para-­‐virualization\ud requires\ud user\ud modification\ud of\ud the\ud guest\ud operating\ud systems,\ud which\ud runs\ud on\ud the\ud virtual\ud machines,\ud e.g.\ud these\ud guest\ud operating\ud systems\ud are\ud aware\ud that\ud they\ud are\ud running\ud on\ud a\ud virtual\ud machine,\ud and\ud provide\ud near-­‐native\ud performance.\ud You\ud can\ud deploy\ud both\ud para-­‐virtualization\ud and\ud full\ud virtualization\ud across\ud various\ud virtualized\ud systems.\ud Para-­‐virtualization\ud is\ud an\ud OS-­‐assisted\ud virtualization;\ud where\ud some\ud modifications\ud are\ud made\ud in\ud the\ud guest\ud operating\ud system\ud to\ud enable\ud better\ud performance.\ud In\ud this\ud kind\ud of\ud virtualization,\ud the\ud guest\ud operating\ud system\ud is\ud aware\ud of\ud the\ud fact\ud that\ud it\ud is\ud running\ud on\ud the\ud virtualized\ud hardware\ud and\ud not\ud on\ud the\ud bare\ud hardware.\ud In\ud para-­‐virtualization,\ud the\ud device\ud drivers\ud in\ud the\ud guest\ud operating\ud system\ud coordinate\ud the\ud device\ud drivers\ud of\ud host\ud operating\ud system\ud and\ud reduce\ud the\ud performance\ud overheads.\ud The\ud use\ud of\ud para-­‐virtualization\ud [0]\ud is\ud intended\ud to\ud avoid\ud the\ud bottleneck\ud associated\ud with\ud slow\ud hardware\ud interrupts\ud that\ud exist\ud when\ud full\ud virtualization\ud is\ud employed.\ud It\ud has\ud revealed\ud [0]\ud that\ud para-­‐\ud virtualization\ud does\ud not\ud impose\ud significant\ud performance\ud overhead\ud in\ud high\ud performance\ud computing,\ud and\ud this\ud in\ud turn\ud this\ud has\ud implications\ud for\ud the\ud use\ud of\ud cloud\ud computing\ud for\ud hosting\ud HPC\ud applications.\ud The\ud “apparent”\ud improvement\ud in\ud virtualization\ud has\ud led\ud us\ud to\ud formulate\ud the\ud hypothesis\ud that\ud certain\ud classes\ud of\ud HPC\ud applications\ud should\ud be\ud able\ud to\ud execute\ud in\ud a\ud cloud\ud environment,\ud with\ud minimal\ud performance\ud degradation.\ud In\ud order\ud to\ud support\ud this\ud hypothesis,\ud first\ud it\ud is\ud necessary\ud to\ud define\ud exactly\ud what\ud is\ud meant\ud by\ud a\ud “class”\ud of\ud application,\ud and\ud secondly\ud it\ud will\ud be\ud necessary\ud to\ud observe\ud application\ud performance,\ud both\ud within\ud a\ud virtual\ud machine\ud and\ud when\ud executing\ud on\ud bare\ud hardware.\ud A\ud further\ud potential\ud complication\ud is\ud associated\ud with\ud the\ud need\ud for\ud Cloud\ud service\ud providers\ud to\ud support\ud Service\ud Level\ud Agreements\ud (SLA),\ud so\ud that\ud system\ud utilisation\ud can\ud be\ud audited

Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:8183

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