Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Heterogeneity and Common Pool Resources: Collective Management of Forests in Himachal Pradesh, India

By Sirisha C. Naidu


This paper explores the role of group heterogeneity in collective action among forest communities in northwestern Himalayas. Based on data from 54 forest communities in Himachal Pradesh, India, this paper finds that heterogeneity has at least three dimensions: wealth, social identity and interest in the resource, and each may significantly affect collective actions related to natural resource management. However, their effects are far from simple and linear. The empirical results suggest that cooperation need not depend on caste parochialism, that very high levels of wealth heterogeneity can reduce cooperation, and that there can be a divergence between ability and incentive to cooperate which reduces the level of cooperation in the community.common pool resources, group outcomes, heterogeneity, forests, Himachal Pradesh

OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1999). (eds) A Methodology to Analyse Divergent Case-Studies to Analyze Non-timber Forest Products and their Development Potential.
  2. (1996). A Comparison of Three Emerging Theories of the Policy Process.
  3. (2000). A Dynamic Approach to Forest Regimes in Developing Economies.
  4. (2004). Common Property Resource Management: Reflections on Theory and The Indian Experience. New York :
  5. (1995). Common property resources and the environmental context: Role of biophysical versus social stresses."
  6. (1996). Communities and the state: re-establishing the balance in Indian Forest Policy,
  7. (1996). Coordination Problems in Local Level Resource Management.
  8. (1995). Ecology and Equity: The Use and
  9. (2000). Empirical regularities in the poverty-environment relationship of rural households:evidence from Zimbabwe. World Development,
  10. (1999). Enchantment and disenchantment: The role of community in natural resource conservation." World Development,
  11. (2000). Explaining Deforestation: The Role of Local Institutions."
  12. (1985). Fishermen and the “tragedy of the commons.”
  13. (1999). Forest dependence and income distribution in subsistence economy:
  14. (1994). Gender and command over property: A critical gap in economic analysis and policy in South Asia." World Development,
  15. (1965). Governing the commons: the evolution of institutions for collective action.
  16. (1999). Greener Pastures: Politics, Markets, and Community Among a Migrant Pastoral People.
  17. (2000). Inequality and governance of water resources in Mexico and South India. In
  18. (2000). Inequality and Group Participation: Theory and Evidence from Rural Tanzania. IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research) Working Papers 161,
  19. (1994). Inequality as a cause of environmental degradation.
  20. (2003). Institutions and the efficient management of environmental resources, In
  21. (2000). Irrigation and cooperation: An empirical analysis of 48 irrigation communities
  22. (2003). Natural resource management and poverty alleviation in mountain areas: approaches and efforts.
  23. (2001). Participatory exclusions, community forestry, and gender: An analysis for South Asia and a conceptual framework.
  24. (2002). Participatory Institutions: The context of common and private property resources”
  25. (1999). Platforms for collective action in multiple-use commonpool resources. Agriculture and Human Values 16:241-55.
  26. (1999). Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions”, Policy Research Working Paper Series 2108. The World Bank.
  27. (2002). Social capital and Community Governance."
  28. (1999). The Ambiguous Impact of Inequality on Local Resource Management.
  29. (1993). The Critical Mass In Collective Action: A Micro-Social Theory.
  30. (1998). The Impact of Inequality, Gender, External Assistance and Social Capital on Local Level Cooperation. World Development,
  31. (1998). The Institutional Analysis and Development Approach."
  32. (1988). The Lobster Gangs of Maine.
  33. (1956). The measurement of linguistic diversity.
  34. (1999). The Role of Non-timber Forest Products in Conservation and Development, pp17 - 42,
  35. (1999). Towards Participatory Economic Analysis by Forest User Groups in Nepal. London: Overseas Development Institute.
  36. (1992). User group forestry in the Far-Western region of Nepal: case studies from Baitadi and Achham. Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.