Many common diseases are highly polygenic, modulated by a large number genetic factors with small effects on susceptibility to disease. These small effects are difficult to map reliably in genetic association studies. To address this problem, researchers have developed methods that aggregate information over sets of related genes, such as biological pathways, to identify gene sets that are enriched for genetic variants associated with disease. However, these methods fail to answer a key question: which genes and genetic variants are associated with disease risk? We develop a method based on sparse multiple regression that simultaneously identifies enriched pathways, and prioritizes the variants within these pathways, to locate additional variants associated with disease susceptibility. A central feature of our approach is an estimate of the strength of enrichment, which yields a coherent way to prioritize variants in enriched pathways. We illustrate the benefits of our approach in a genome-wide association study of Crohn's disease with ~440,000 genetic variants genotyped for ~4700 study subjects. We obtain strong support for enrichment of IL-12, IL-23 and other cytokine signaling pathways. Furthermore, prioritizing variants in these enriched pathways yields support for additional disease-association variants, all of which have been independently reported in other case-control studies for Crohn's disease.Comment: Summitted to PLoS Genetic
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