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Structural change and nucleation characteristics of water/ice in confined geometry

By John C. Dore, J. Beau W. Webber, C. Montague and Thomas Hansen


The confinement of liquids in the restricted space of a mesoporous solid leads to significant changes in their properties. The main effect is a reduction in the nucleation temperature that, according to the Gibbs-Thomson formalism is inversely proportional to the pore size. Other effects on the liquid structure and transport properties also occur and depend on the detailed characteristics of the\ud mesoporous material. Confined liquids occur in various situations, both in the natural environment and also in industrial processes, so that there is a growing\ud interest in understanding the fundamental principles that govern the behaviour and modified characteristics.\ud For scientific study it is important to have a well-characterised system in which the solid matrix has a large pore volume, controlled narrow pore size distribution\ud function and high surface area. The most convenient material for this purpose is silica and there is a wide range of pore sizes available that can be produced by the\ud sol-gel process. More recently, other forms of mesoporous silica such as MCM and SBA-types have been fabricated with an ordered arrangement of cylindricallyshaped pores made by a template process. The internal silica surface is normally\ud smooth and hydrophilic so that surface wetting is not usually a problem and the water is easily adsorbed into the pore volume. In contrast, the activated carbons, which are also extremely important in industrial use, have a much more complex pore and surface structure which makes a detailed interpretation of the experimental measurements more difficult. Consequently, the main interest has\ud focused on silicas as the ideal substrate and the initial investigation of liquids in confined geometry has been centred on these materials

Topics: QC
Publisher: Springer
Year: 2004
OAI identifier:

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