Despite over 15 years of research on multidimensional perfectionism, it is still unclear how different forms of perfectionism are related to self-efficacy, aspiration level, and reactions to success and failure in performance situations. Differentiating between positive striving perfectionism and self-critical perfectionism, the present study investigated in N = 100 undergraduate students how perfectionistic striving and self-criticism were related to self-efficacy, aspiration level, and performance and how manipulated success and failure feedback affected these relationships. Results showed that perfectionistic striving was positively correlated with self-efficacy and aspiration level prior to manipulated feedback. Moreover, perfectionistic striving predicted increases in aspiration level following success feedback. In contrast, self-criticism was negatively correlated with self-efficacy prior to feedback and predicted decreases in self-efficacy following failure feedback. The findings corroborate the view that perfectionism has both adaptive and maladaptive aspects: whereas self-criticism is associated with low self-efficacy and makes perfectionists lose confidence after failure, perfectionistic striving is associated with higher aspiration levels and makes perfectionists reach for higher aims after success
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