Longitudinal direct and extended cross-ethnic friendship effects on out-group evaluations amongst German (majority status, N = 76) and Turkish (minority status, N = 73) children (age 7-11 yrs) in ethnically heterogeneous elementary schools were examined at the beginning and end of the school year (time-lag: 7 months). The results showed that amongst majority status children, but not minority status children, direct cross-ethnic friendship predicted over time positive out-group evaluations. This association was partly mediated by perceived social norms about cross-ethnic friendship relations. No longitudinal effects of extended cross-ethnic friendship were found. This longitudinal study demonstrates for the first time the causal direction between greater direct cross-ethnic friendship and more positive outgroup attitudes amongst ethnic majority children. In addition, our results suggest that in ethnically heterogeneous contexts, direct friendship is more effective in changing intergroup attitudes than extended friendship and that social status moderates direct friendship effects
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