Powdery mildews are phytopathogens whose growth and reproduction are entirely dependent\ud on living plant cells. The molecular basis of this life-style, obligate biotrophy, remains unknown. We\ud present the genome analysis of barley powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Blumeria), as well\ud as a comparison with the analysis of two powdery mildews pathogenic on dicotyledonous plants. These\ud genomes display massive retrotransposon proliferation, genome-size expansion, and gene losses. The\ud missing genes encode enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and\ud transporters, probably reflecting their redundancy in an exclusively biotrophic life-style. Among the 248\ud candidate effectors of pathogenesis identified in the Blumeria genome, very few (less than 10) define a\ud core set conserved in all three mildews, suggesting thatmost effectors represent species-specific adaptations
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