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Genome expansion and gene loss in powdery mildew fungi reveal tradeoffs in extreme parasitism

By Pietro D. Spanu, James C. Abbott, Joelle Amselem, Timothy A. Burgis, Darren M. Soanes, Kurt Stuber, Emiel Ver Loren van Themaat, James K.M. Brown, Sarah A. Butcher, Sarah J. Gurr, Marc-Henri Lebrun, Christopher J. Ridout, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Nicholas J. Talbot, Nahal Ahmadinejad, Christian Ametz, Geraint R. Barton, Mariam Benjdia, Przemyslaw Bidzinski, Laurence Veronique Bindschedler, Maike Both, Marin T. Brewer, Lance Cadle-Davidson, Molly M. Cadle-Davidson, Jerome Collemare, Rainer Karl Cramer, Omer Frenkel, Dale Godfrey, James Harriman, Claire Hoede, Brian C. King, Sven Klages, Jochen Kleemann, Daniela Knoll, Prasanna S. Koti, Jonathan Kreplak, Francisco J. Lopez-Ruiz, Xunli Lu, Takaki Maekawa, Siraprapa Mahanil, Cristina Micali, Michael G. Milgroom, Giovanni Montana, Sandra Noir, Richard J. O'Connell, Simone Oberhaensli, Francis Parlange, Carsten Pedersen, Hadi Quesneville, Richard Reinhardt, Matthias Rott, Soledad Sacristan, Sarah M. Schmidt, Moritz Schon, Pari Skamnioti, Hans Sommer, Amber Stephens, Hiroyuki Takahara, Hans Thordal-Christensen, Marielle Vigouroux, Ralf Wessling, Thomas Wicker and Ralph Panstruga

Abstract

Powdery mildews are phytopathogens whose growth and reproduction are entirely dependent\ud on living plant cells. The molecular basis of this life-style, obligate biotrophy, remains unknown. We\ud present the genome analysis of barley powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Blumeria), as well\ud as a comparison with the analysis of two powdery mildews pathogenic on dicotyledonous plants. These\ud genomes display massive retrotransposon proliferation, genome-size expansion, and gene losses. The\ud missing genes encode enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and\ud transporters, probably reflecting their redundancy in an exclusively biotrophic life-style. Among the 248\ud candidate effectors of pathogenesis identified in the Blumeria genome, very few (less than 10) define a\ud core set conserved in all three mildews, suggesting thatmost effectors represent species-specific adaptations

Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:17117
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