This article examines an enduring question raised by subcultural studies: how youth culture can be challenging and transgressive, yet '��fail'�� to produce wider social change. This question is addressed through a case study of the black metal music scene. The black metal scene flirts with violent racism, yet has resisted embracing outright fascism. The article argues that this is due to the way in which music is '��reflexively antireflexively'�� constructed as a depoliticizing category. It is argued that an investigation of such forms of reflexivity might explain the enduring '��failure'�� of youth cultures to change more than their immediate surroundings
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