There is emerging evidence to show that high levels of NEFA contribute to endothelial dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. However,\ud the impact of NEFA composition remains unclear. A total of ten healthy men consumed test drinks containing 50 g of palm stearin\ud (rich in SFA) or high-oleic sunflower oil (rich in MUFA) on separate occasions; a third day included no fat as a control. The fats were emulsified\ud into chocolate drinks and given as a bolus (approximately 10 g fat) at baseline followed by smaller amounts (approximately 3 g fat)\ud every 30 min throughout the 6 h study day. An intravenous heparin infusion was initiated 2 h after the bolus, which resulted in a three- to\ud fourfold increase in circulating NEFA level from baseline. Mean arterial stiffness as measured by digital volume pulse was higher during the\ud consumption of SFA (P,0·001) but not MUFA (P¼0·089) compared with the control. Overall insulin and gastric inhibitory peptide\ud response was greater during the consumption of both fats compared with the control (P,0·001); there was a second insulin peak in\ud response to MUFA unlike SFA. Consumption of SFA resulted in higher levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sI-CAM) at\ud 330 min than that of MUFA or control (P#0·048). There was no effect of the test drinks on glucose, total nitrite, plasminogen activator\ud inhibitor-1 or endothelin-1 concentrations. The present study indicates a potential negative impact of elevated NEFA derived from the consumption\ud of SFA on arterial stiffness and sI-CAM levels. More studies are needed to fully investigate the impact of NEFA composition on risk\ud factors for CVD
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