An increasing importance is assigned to the estimation and verification of carbon stocks in forests. Forestry practice has several long-established and reliable methods for the assessment of aboveground biomass; however we still miss accurate predictors of belowground biomass. A major windthrow event exposing the coarse root systems of Norway spruce trees allowed us to assess the effects of contrasting soil stone and water content on belowground allocation. Increasing stone content decreases root/shoot ratio, while soil waterlogging leads to an increase in this ratio. We constructed allometric relationships for belowground biomass prediction and were able to show that only soil waterlogging significantly impacts model parameters. We showed that diameter at breast height is a reliable predictor of belowground biomass and, once site-specific parameters have been developed, it is possible to accurately estimate belowground biomass in Norway spruce
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