Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The role of shame in motivating support for, and opposition to, intergroup reconciliation: two forms of shame as separate predictors of positive and negative responses to ingroup wrongdoing

By Jesse A Allpress

Abstract

This thesis deals with how group members respond to wrongdoing committed in their\ud group's name. In particular, I investigate whether individuals feel ashamed or guilty for\ud these acts, and in turn, what motivational effects these emotions have. A review of the\ud literature on shame and guilt turns up serious inconsistencies regarding both the charac-\ud terisation of these emotions and the empirical evidence relating to them. In particular,\ud shame is found to be related to both prosocial and antisocial outcomes, and guilt is some-\ud times associated with prosocial acts and sometimes not. My empirical work tests an\ud explanation for these inconsistencies. Notably, I test a novel way of seeing shame, and\ud propose that not only are there different forms of shame but that these different forms have\ud divergent motivational effects. I focus on two important forms of shame: moral shame\ud and image shame, which arise when one sees the ingroup's actions as threatening one's\ud morality or reputation, respectively. I show that moral shame is consistently related to\ud increased prosocial attitudes (support for apology and compensation) and decreased an-\ud ger, avoidance and cover-up; whereas image shame is predictive of higher levels of anger,\ud avoidance and cover-up. The effects of guilt are weak or non-existent in the presence of\ud these two forms of shame. I also show that these emotions have a meaningful influence on\ud how group members relate to unrelated minorities in society, borne in part of a feeling of\ud moral obligation for past wrongdoing. A study is also reported that shows that, depend-\ud ing on their individual motivations, different group members prefer different emotional\ud expressions within apologies offered by their leaders

Topics: BF0636
Year: 2012
OAI identifier: oai:sro.sussex.ac.uk:39374

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2007). A caution regarding rules of thumb for variance in ation factors. doi
  2. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation147 hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. doi
  3. (2008). Advantaged group's emotional reactions to intergroup inequality: The dynamics of pride, guilt, and sympathy. doi
  4. (1994). An exploration of shame measures{II: psychopathology. Personality and Individual Dierences, doi
  5. (2000). Analysis of interaction terms in structural equation models: A non-technical demonstration using the deviation score approach. doi
  6. (2006). Anger and guilt about ingroup advantage explain the willingness for political action. doi
  7. (2006). Appraisal antecedents of shame and guilt: Support for a theoretical model. doi
  8. (1996). Are shame, guilt, and149 embarrassment distinct emotions? doi
  9. (2005). Ashamed to be an american? the role of identi in predicting vicarious shame for anti-Arab prejudice after 911. Self and Identity, doi
  10. (2010). Atoning for colonial injustices: Group-based shame and guilt motivate support for reparation.
  11. (2004). Blair criticised over Iraq claims. Available from http :
  12. (2005). Britain's gulag: the brutal end of empire in kenya. doi
  13. (1976). Bureaucracy and incumbent violence: Colonial administration and the origins of the 'mau mau' emergency in kenya. doi
  14. (1995). Causal analysis with panel data. Thousand Oaks: doi
  15. (1991). Children's understanding of guilt and shame. doi
  16. (2000). Collective guilt and shame as motivation for white support for black programs. doi
  17. (2006). Collective guilt as distress146 over illegitimate intergroup inequality. doi
  18. (2006). Collective guilt: emotional reactions when one's group has done wrong or been wronged. doi
  19. (2004). Collective guilt: International perspectives. New York: doi
  20. (2011). Concern for self-image and social image in the management of moral failure: Rethinking shame. doi
  21. (1984). Contrasting experiences of shame and guilt. doi
  22. (2003). Core aect and the psychological construction of emotion. doi
  23. (2010). Crimes of the past: Defensive temporal distancing in the face of past In-Group wrongdoing. doi
  24. (1995). Cultural determinants in experiencing shame and guilt. In
  25. (2002). De guilt in depression: a comparison of subjects with major depression, chronic medical illness and healthy controls. doi
  26. (2008). Dealing with the past and facing the future: mediators140 of the eects of collective guilt and shame in Bosnia and Herzegovina. doi
  27. (1994). Dierentiating embarrassment and shame. doi
  28. (1995). Dierentiating guilt and shame and their eects on motivation. In
  29. (2008). Dierentiating shame from guilt. doi
  30. (2000). Displaced aggression is alive and well: A meta-analytic review. doi
  31. (2009). DWP research report 607: A test of racial discrimination in recruitment practice (Tech. Rep.). Available from http://tinyurl.com/3ol4v2w
  32. (1997). Embarrassment: Its distinct form and appeasement functions. doi
  33. (2008). Emotion in inter-group relations. doi
  34. (2001). Emotional reason: Deliberation, motivation, and the nature of value. Cambridge: doi
  35. (1998). Empathy, shame, guilt, and narratives of interpersonal con icts: Guilt-prone people are better at perspective taking.
  36. (2001). Forgiveness: Theory, research, and practice.
  37. (2005). Group-based guilt as a predictor of commitment to apology. doi
  38. (1996). Guilt, shame, and depression in clients in recovery from addiction. doi
  39. (1994). Guilt: an interpersonal approach. doi
  40. (1998). Guilty by association: when one's group has a negative history. doi
  41. (1922). Human nature and the social order. doi
  42. (1994). If only i weren't" versus "If only i hadn't": distinguishing shame and guilt in counterfactual thinking. doi
  43. (2011). In defense of shame : the faces of an emotion. NYC: doi
  44. (2001). Interpersonal aspects of guilt: Evidence from narrative studies.
  45. (2007). Iraq. Available from http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/iraq/report-2007
  46. (2010). Iraqi prisoners were abused at 'UK's abu ghraib', court hears. The Guardian. Available from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/nov/06/iraq-prisoner-abuse-court Cohen, S.
  47. (2010). Is shame really that bad? uncovering the pro-social potential of shame about in-group wrongdoing.
  48. (1998). Longitudinal data analysis: designs, models and methods.
  49. (2005). Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. doi
  50. (2006). Mau mau veterans to sue britain over torture and illegal killings in kenya.
  51. (2007). Measuring shame and guilt by self-report questionnaires: A validation study. doi
  52. (2011). Memory for intergroup apologies and its relationship with forgiveness. doi
  53. (2008). MoD admits human rights breaches over death of tortured iraqi civilian. The Independent. Available from http://tinyurl.com/3pp2kph
  54. (2002). Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach. doi
  55. (1991). Moral aect: the good, the bad, and the ugly. doi
  56. (2004). Morality- and identityrelated antecedents of children's guilt and shame attributions in events involving physical illness. doi
  57. (2011). More thoughts on equality of opportunity. The New York Times. Available from http://tinyurl.com/6yfvmmv
  58. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks: doi
  59. (2010). Never again!? eects of group-based emotions about historical wrongdoings to one outgroup generalise to another contemporary outgroup. Masters dissertation,
  60. (2003). Nonviolent communication : a language of life (2nd
  61. (2008). Not so ugly after all: When shame acts as a commitment device. doi
  62. (2008). Nuestra culpa: collective guilt and shame as predictors of reparation for historical wrongdoing. doi
  63. (2004). of the. doi
  64. (1956). On shame and the search for identity. doi
  65. (1983). Participant descriptions of guilt and shame. doi
  66. (1995). Personal narratives about139 guilt - role in action control and interpersonal relationships. doi
  67. (1994). Phenomenology, behaviors, and goals dierentiate discrete emotions. doi
  68. (2005). Positive and negative perfectionism and the shame/guilt distinction: adaptive and maladaptive characteristics. Personality and Individual Dierences, doi
  69. (2008). Prejudice and Group-Related behavior in germany. doi
  70. (1992). Proneness to shame, proneness to guilt, and psychopathology. doi
  71. (2004). Putting the self into Self-Conscious emotions: A theoretical model". doi
  72. (1996). Relation of shame and guilt to constructive versus destructive responses to anger across the lifespan. doi
  73. (1955). Relationships between shame and guilt in the socializing process. doi
  74. (1995). Self conscious emotions: the psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment and pride. doi
  75. (1985). Self-concept discrepancy theory: A psychological model for distinguishing among dierent aspects of depression and anxiety. doi
  76. (1993). Self-conscious emotions: Embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt. doi
  77. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and aect. doi
  78. (2000). Shame and guilt in children: Dierential situational antecedents and experiential correlates. doi
  79. (1971). Shame and guilt in neurosis.
  80. (2009). Shame and guilt in preschool depression: evidence for elevations in self-conscious emotions in depression as early as age 3. doi
  81. (2002). Shame and guilt. doi
  82. (2011). Shame and honour drive cooperation. Biology Letters. doi
  83. (2000). Shame and the social bond: A sociological theory. doi
  84. (2008). Shame expressions reduce the recipient's insult from outgroup reparations. doi
  85. (2004). Shame in two cultures: Implications for evolutionary approaches. doi
  86. (1992). Shamed into anger? the relation of shame and guilt to anger and self-reported aggression. doi
  87. (2010). Shaming, blaming, and maiming: Functional links among the moral emotions, externalization of blame, and aggression. doi
  88. (1992). Situational detenninants of shame and guilt in young adulthood. doi
  89. (1993). Social identity and social emotions: toward new conceptualizations of prejudice. In doi
  90. (2002). Taking responsibility for the past: Reparation and historical injustice. Cambidge: doi
  91. (2006). The approach and avoidance function of guilt and shame emotions: Comparing reactions to self-caused and other-caused wrongdoing. doi
  92. (2006). The emotions of the ancient greeks : studies in aristotle and classical literature. doi
  93. (2000). The guilt of nations. doi
  94. (2007). The in uence of inequality, responsibility and justi on reports of Group-Based guilt for ingroup privilege. doi
  95. (2004). The measurement of collective guilt: what it is and what it is not. In doi
  96. (1960). The origins and growth of mau mau: an historical survey. Nairobi: Colony and Protectorate of Kenya.
  97. (1985). The origins of mau mau. doi
  98. (2008). The politics of ocial apologies. doi
  99. (1997). The rise and fall of the british empire. doi
  100. (2002). The role of public exposure in moral and nonmoral shame and guilt. doi
  101. (1992). The scramble for africa: white man's conquest of the dark continent from 1876 to 1912. doi
  102. (2009). The self of shame. doi
  103. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. doi
  104. (1989). The test of self-conscious aect.
  105. (2006). Untying the gordian knot of guilt and shame: The structure of guilt and shame reactions based on situation and person variation in belgium, hungary, and peru. doi
  106. (2005). Vicarious shame and guilt. doi
  107. (2008). What happens when groups say sorry: The eect of intergroup apologies on their recipients. doi
  108. (2011). What is moral about guilt? acting prosocially at the disadvantage of others. doi
  109. (2003). White guilt and racial compensation: the143 bene and limits of self-focus. doi
  110. (1999). White guilt: its antecedents and consequences for attitudes toward armative action. doi
  111. (2007). Why individuals protest the perceived transgressions of their country: the role of anger, shame and guilt. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.