Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism and Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Purposes

By Sheng-Tao Yang, Jianbin Luo, Qinghan Zhou and Haifang Wang


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted great interest of the nano community and beyond. However, the biomedical applications of CNTs arouse serious concerns for their unknown in vivo consequence, in which the information of pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity of CNTs is essential. In this review, we summarize the updated data of CNTs from the biomedical view. The information shows that surface chemistry is crucial in regulating the in vivo behaviors of CNTs. Among the functionalization methods, PEGylation is the most efficient one to improve the pharmacokinetics and biocompatibility of CNTs. The guiding effects of the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity information on the biomedical applications of CNTs are discussed

Topics: Review
Publisher: Ivyspring International Publisher
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

Suggested articles


  1. (2011). A brief summary of carbon nanotubes science and technology: A health and safety perspective. ChemSusChem
  2. (2008). A generally adoptable radiotracing method for tracking carbon nanotubes in animals. Nanotechnology
  3. (2008). A pilot toxicology study of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a small sample of mice.
  4. (2010). Advances in biodistribution study and tracing methodology of carbon nanotubes.
  5. (2009). Antitumor activity and prolonged survival by carbon-nanotube-mediated therapeutic siRNA silencing in a human lung xenograft model. Small
  6. (2009). Biodefunctionalization of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes in mice. Biomacromolecules
  7. (2008). Biodegradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes through enzymatic catalysis. Nano Lett
  8. (2004). Biodistribution of carbon single-wall carbon nanotubes in mice.
  9. (2007). Biodistribution of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes in vivo.
  10. (2006). biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of polymeric nanoparticles.
  11. (2007). Carbon nanotube-enhanced thermal destruction of cancer cells in a noninvasive radiofrequency field. Cancer
  12. (2008). Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice. Nat Nanotechol
  13. (2010). Carbon nanotubes degraded by neutrophil myeloperoxidase induce less pulmonary inflammation. Nat Nanotechnol
  14. (2010). Carbon nanotubes in cancer theragnosis. Nanomedicine
  15. (2008). Carbon nanotubes introduced into the abdominal cavity of mice show asbestoslike pathogenicity in a pilot study. Nat Nanotechnol
  16. (2006). Chemistry of carbon nanotubes. Chem Rev
  17. (2008). Circulation and long-term fate of functionalized, biocompatible single-walled carbon nanotubes in mice probed by Raman spectroscopy.
  18. (2011). Combining portable Raman probes with nanotubes for theranostic applications. Theranostics
  19. (2008). Comparative in vivo biocompatibility study of single and multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Acta Biomater
  20. (2008). Covalently PEGylated carbon nanotubes with stealth character in vivo. Small
  21. (2011). Deep-tissue anatomical imaging of mice using carbon nanotube fluorophores in the second near-infrared window.
  22. (2011). Delivery of drugs and biomolecules using carbon nanotubes. Carbon
  23. (2010). Delivery of paclitaxel by physically loading onto poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-graft-carbon nanotubes for potent cancer therapeutics. Nanotechnology
  24. (2010). Distribution and clearance of PEG-single-walled carbon nanotube cancer drug delivery vehicles in mice. Nanomedicine
  25. (2008). Drug delivery with carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer treatment. Cancer Res
  26. (2011). Emerging applications of carbon nanotubes.
  27. (2010). Filled and glycosylated carbon nanotubes for in vivo radioemitter localization and imaging.
  28. (2011). Folic acid-conjugated graphene oxide loaded with photosensitizers for targeting photodynamic therapy. Theranostics
  29. (2011). Functional motor recovery from brain ischemic insult by carbon nanotube-mediated siRNA silencing.
  30. (2006). Functionalization density dependence of single-walled carbon nanotubes cytotoxicity in vitro. Toxicol Lett
  31. (2008). Functionalized carbon nanotubes in drug design and discovery. Acc Chem Res
  32. (2007). In vivo biodistribution and highly efficient tumour targeting of carbon nanotubes in mice. Nat Nanotechnol
  33. (2007). In vivo biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by Daphnia magna. Environ Sci Technol
  34. (2009). In vivo near-infrared mediated tumor destruction by photothermal effect of carbon nanotubes.
  35. (2011). Integrin targeting for tumor optical imaging. Theranostics
  36. (2008). Long-term accumulation and low toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes in intravenously exposed mice. Toxicol Lett
  37. (2010). Long-term hepatotoxicity of polyethylene-glycol functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in mice. Nanotechnology
  38. (2006). Mammalian pharmacokinetics of carbon nanotubes using intrinsic near-infrared fluorescence.
  39. (2009). Multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper: Toxicology and biological effects in vitro and in vivo. Nanomedicine
  40. (2008). Noninvasive molecular imaging of small living subjects using Raman spectroscopy.
  41. (2006). Oops they did it again! Carbon nanotubes hoax scientists in viability assays. Nano Lett
  42. (2011). Optimization of surface chemistry on single-walled carbon nanotubes for in vivo photothermal ablation of tumors. Biomaterials
  43. (2009). Oxidatively damaged DNA in rats exposed by oral gavage to C60 fullerenes and single-walled carbon nanotubes. Environ Health Perspect
  44. (2009). PEG branched polymer for functionalization of nanomaterials with ultralong blood circulation.
  45. (2007). PET imaging of soluble Yttrium-86-labeled carbon nanotubes in mice.
  46. (2010). Pharmacological and toxicological target organelles and safe use of single-walled carbon nanotubes as drug carriers in treating Alzheimer disease. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnol Biol Med
  47. (2009). Pilot study of targeting magnetic carbon nanotubes to lymph nodes. Nanomedicine
  48. (2011). Poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes as an efficient drug carrier for overcoming multidrug resistance. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
  49. (2010). Preparation and biodistribution of tyrosine modified multiwall carbon nanotubes.
  50. (2011). Pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes: A systematic report. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnol Biol Med
  51. (2008). Rapid translocation and pharmacokinetics of hydroxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes in mice. Nanotoxicology
  52. (2010). Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nat Nanotechnol
  53. (2003). Solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with diamine-terminated oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) in different functionalization reactions. Nano Lett
  54. (2009). Supramolecular stacking of doxorubicin on carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer therapy. Angew Chem Int Ed
  55. (2009). The effect of multiwalled carbon nanotube agglomeration on their accumulation in and damage to organs in mice. Carbon
  56. (2009). The hepatotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in mice. Nanotechnology
  57. (2006). Tissue biodistribution and blood clearance rates of intravenously administered carbon nanotube radiotracers.
  58. (2008). Tissue histology and physiology following intravenous administration of different types functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Nanomedicine
  59. (2007). Translocation and fate of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in vivo. Carbon
  60. (2004). Translocation of bioactive peptides across cell membranes by carbon nanotubes. Chem Commun
  61. (2007). Tumor targeting with antibody-functionalized, radiolabeled carbon nanotubes.
  62. (2011). Tunable plasmonic nanoprobes for theranostics of prostate cancer. Theranostics

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.