Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Chromobacterium violaceum associated with recurrent vaginal discharge among apparently healthy females in Ekpoma, Nigeria

By Agwu Ezera, Ihongbe John Cletus, Okogun Godwin Ray Anugboba, Ezeonwumelu Joseph Obiezu Chukwujekwu and Igbinovia Osamuyime


Seven hundred and two high vaginal swab samples of apparently healthy adult females with recurrent vaginal discharge were collected and analyzed at Searchlight Medical Diagnostic Centre, Ekpoma between July 2003 and August 2005. Isolation, identification and antibiogram of isolates were done using standard Microbiological techniques. Randomized Block Design and Completely Randomized Design at (α = 0.1) were used to test the statistical significance of results. While occupational distribution of isolates was not statistically significant, age and response of bacterial isolates to antibiotics used were statistically significant. Total number and percentage prevalence of bacteria isolated include: 297(42.4%) Chromobacterium violaceum, 156 (22.2%) Escherichia coli and 139 (19.8%) Staphylococcus aureus. Chromobacterium violaceum was 81.8% sensitive to ofloxacin, and 12.8% to Ceftriazone. Escherichia coli and S. aureus were 70.5% and 71.9% sensitive to sparfloxacin respectively. Though source of infection of C. violaceum in Ekpoma was not very clear, soil and water contamination and other risk factors were hypothesized. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis. Surveillance with improved diagnostic facilities can increase awareness among health care providers on this form of infection. Appropriate systemic antimicrobial therapy to halt progression of infection is mandatory, even when the infection appears to be localized

Topics: Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences
Publisher: Dr. B.S. Kakkilaya
Year: 2007
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1993). 3rd ed.
  2. (1983). 4th Ed.
  3. (2002). Agency of Canada. Guidelines on susceptibility testing of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae due to extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs).
  4. (1994). All About STDs and AIDS. Action Newsletter,
  5. (1998). An outbreak of multidrug resistant pneumococcal pneumonia and bacteremia among unvaccinated nursing home resident. doi
  6. Analysis of HIV and CMV specific memory T-cell response during primary and chronic infections.
  7. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from Suspected Tuberculosis Patients in Ekpoma and environs.
  8. (2004). Association of Bacterial Vaginosis to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection among Women in Abakaliki Metropolis.
  9. Available at andbook/.
  10. (1905). Bacillus violaceum manilae (a pathogenic organism). Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp.
  11. Bacteria vaginosis and intra amniotic infections. Up date.
  12. (2002). Chromobacterium violaceum: a case of diarrhea in Senegal. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.
  13. Chronic granulomatous disease of Childhood and Chromobacterium violaceum infections in the South-Eastern United States.
  14. (2004). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries.
  15. Fatal infection by Chromobacterium violaceum.
  16. (2006). Fatal septicaemia from Chromobacterium violaceum: case reports and review of the literature. Hong Kong Med
  17. (1984). Human infection due to Chromobacterium violaceum: a report from Ilorin,
  18. (2005). Invasive Chromobacterium violaceum infection in children: case report and review. Pediatr Infect Dis doi
  19. (2000). Louisiana State University. Recurrent Nonfatal Chromobacterium violaceum Infection in a Nonimmunocompromised Patient. Infect Med.
  20. Multidrug resistant Chromobacterium violaceum: an unusual bacterium causing long standing wound abscess.
  21. NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods.
  22. Progressive HIV specific immune recovery after prolonged viral suppression.
  23. Situation analysis of HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa.
  24. (2000). Standards, Performance Standards for antimicrobial disc susceptibility tests.
  25. Standards. Performance Standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: eleventh in9
  26. (1997). Standards. Performance Standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests: approved standard M2-A6.
  27. (1998). Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections. Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 2,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.