Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Vaccines and Antiviral Drugs in Pandemic Preparedness

By Arnold S. Monto


Controlling a pandemic with vaccine and antiviral drugs will require a coordinated international approach to determine how the least amount of virus can immunize the largest segment of a population

Topics: Perspective
Publisher: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

Suggested articles


  1. (1999). Antibody response in individuals infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses and detection of anti-H5 antibody among household and social contacts. J Infect Dis.
  2. Avian influenza A (H5N1) in 10 patients in Vietnam.
  3. Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
  4. (1968). Avian-to-human transmission of the PB1 gene
  5. Boosting immunity to influenza H5N1 with MF59-adjuvanted H5N3 A/Duck/Singapore/97 vaccine in a primed human population.
  6. Characterization of a human H9N2 influenza virus isolated in Hong Kong.
  7. (1977). Clinical reactions and serologic responses in healthy children aged six to 35 months after two-dose regimens of inactivated A/New Jersey/76 influenza virus vaccines. J Infect Dis.
  8. (2001). Comparison of efficacies of RWY-270201, zanamivir, and oseltamivir against H5N1, H9N2, and other avian influenza viruses. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.
  9. (2006). Containing pandemic influenza at the source. Science. 2005;309:1083–7. Address for correspondence:
  10. (1977). Correlation of laboratory studies with clinical responses to A/New Jersey influenza vaccines. J Infect Dis.
  11. (2005). Cross-reactivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses after vaccination with nonadjuvanted and MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3) vaccine: a potential priming strategy. J Infect Dis.
  12. (1998). Effect of rimantadine treatment on clinical manifestations and otologic complications in adults experimentally infected with influenza A (H1N1) virus. J Infect Dis.
  13. (2000). Effect of zanamivir on duration and resolution of influenza symptoms. Clin Ther.
  14. (1992). Emergence and transmission of influenza A viruses resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol.
  15. Epidemiologic and immunologic significance of age distribution of antibody to antigenic variants of influenza virus.
  16. Epidemiological evidence of an early wave of the 1918 influenza pandemic in New York City.
  17. (1982). Evaluation of a cold-recombinant influenza virus vaccine in ferrets. J Infect Dis.
  18. Fatal avian influenza A(H5N1) in a child presenting with diarrhea followed by coma.
  19. Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia.
  20. (1998). Identification of GS 4104 as an orally bioavailable prodrug of the influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor GS 4071. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.
  21. Impact of oseltamivir treatment on influenza-related lower respiratory tract complications and hospitalizations.
  22. (2000). Impact of zanamivir on antibiotic use for respiratory events following acute influenza in adolescents and adults. Arch Intern Med.
  23. (2002). Influenza virus carrying an R292K mutation in the neuraminidase gene is not transmitted in ferrets. Antiviral Res.
  24. Influenza viruses resistant to the antiviral drug oseltamivir: transmission studies in ferrets.
  25. (2004). Lethality to ferrets of H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from humans and poultry in
  26. (2004). Novel avian influenza H7N3 strain outbreak, British Columbia. Emerg Infect Dis.
  27. On the origin of the human influenza virus subtypes H2N2 and H3N2.
  28. (2001). Oral oseltamivir treatment of influenza in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J.
  29. (2002). Pandemic preparedness: lessons learnt from H2N2 and H9N2 candidate vaccines. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl).
  30. Perspective: the threat of an avian influenza pandemic.
  31. Prevention of Russian influenza by amantadine.
  32. Recycling of Asian and Hong Kong influenza A virus hemagglutinins in man.
  33. (1983). Reduction in fever and symptoms in young adults with influenza A/Brazil/78 H1N1 infection after treatment with aspirin or amantadine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.
  34. Safety and antigenicity of non-adjuvanted and MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3) vaccine: a randomised trial of two potential vaccines against H5N1 influenza.
  35. (2006). Safety and antigenicity of whole virus and subunit influenza A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2) vaccine in healthy adults: Phase I randomised trial.
  36. Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in
  37. (2003). The origin of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus: a continuing enigma. J Gen Virology.
  38. (1977). Trials of influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus vaccine in normal children: an overview of age-related antigenicity and reactogenicity. J Infect Dis.
  39. (1999). Use of the selective oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir to prevent influenza.
  40. Virulence may determine the necessary duration and dosage of oseltamivir treatment for highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) influenza virus in mice.
  41. Zanamivir in the prevention of influenza among healthy adults: a randomized controlled trial.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.