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The HIV-1 Epidemic: Low- to Middle-Income Countries

By Yiming Shao and Carolyn Williamson


Low- to middle-income countries bear the overwhelming burden of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic in terms of the numbers of their citizens living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the high degrees of viral diversity often involving multiple HIV-1 clades circulating within their populations, and the social and economic factors that compromise current control measures. Distinct epidemics have emerged in different geographical areas. These epidemics differ in their severity, the population groups they affect, their associated risk behaviors, and the viral strains that drive them. In addition to inflicting great human cost, the high burden of HIV infection has a major impact on the social and economic development of many low- to middle-income countries. Furthermore, the high degrees of viral diversity associated with multiclade HIV epidemics impacts viral diagnosis and pathogenicity and treatment and poses daunting challenges for effective vaccine development

Topics: Perspectives
Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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