Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

P-model Alternative to the T-model

By Mark D. Roberts


Standard linguistic analysis of syntax uses the T-model. This model requires the ordering: D-structure $>$ S-structure $>$ LF, where D-structure is the deep structure, S-structure is the surface structure, and LF is logical form. Between each of these representations there is movement which alters the order of the constituent words; movement is achieved using the principles and parameters of syntactic theory. Psychological analysis of sentence production is usually either serial or connectionist. Psychological serial models do not accommodate the T-model immediately so that here a new model called the P-model is introduced. The P-model is different from previous linguistic and psychological models. Here it is argued that the LF representation should be replaced by a variant of Frege's three qualities (sense, reference, and force), called the Frege representation or F-representation. In the F-representation the order of elements is not necessarily the same as that in LF and it is suggested that the correct ordering is: F-representation $>$ D-structure $>$ S-structure. This ordering appears to lead to a more natural view of sentence production and processing. Within this framework movement originates as the outcome of emphasis applied to the sentence. The requirement that the F-representation precedes the D-structure needs a picture of the particular principles and parameters which pertain to movement of words between representations. In general this would imply that there is a preferred or optimal ordering of the symbolic string in the F-representation. The standard ordering is retained because the general way of producing such an optimal ordering is unclear. In this case it is possible to produce an analysis of movement between LF and D-structure similar to the usual analysis of movement between S-structure and LF. It is suggested that a maximal amount of information about a language's grammar and lexicon is stored, because of the necessity of analyzing corrupted data

Topics: Cognitive Psychology, Syntax
Year: 2004
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. A-chains at the PF-interface: Copies and ’Covert’ Movement. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory20(2002)197-267. 4
  2. (1999). Cascaded Markov Models. In: Comutational Natural Language Learning
  3. (1989). Challenging Chomsky: The Generative Garden game.
  4. (1988). Chomsky’s Universal Grammar: An Introduction. Basil Blackwell,
  5. Deriving the Predicate-Argument Structure for a Free Word Order Language.
  6. Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin, and Use.
  7. Steps Towards Formalizing Context.
  8. The Minimalist Impulse.
  9. (1977). The Psychology of Language, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,
  10. (1995). Word Order in Discourse, Typological Studies in Language (TSL),

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.