Serial order processing or sequence processing underlies many human activities such as speech, language, skill learning, planning, problem-solving, etc. Investigating the neural bases of sequence processing enables us to understand serial order in cognition and also helps in building intelligent devices. In this article, we review various cognitive issues related to sequence processing with examples. Experimental results that give evidence for the involvement of various brain areas will be described. Finally, a theoretical approach based on statistical models and reinforcement learning paradigm is presented. These theoretical ideas are useful for studying sequence learning in a principled way. This article also suggests a two-way process diagram integrating experimentation (cognitive neuroscience) and theory/ computational modelling (computational neuroscience). This integrated framework is useful not only in the present study of serial order, but also for understanding many cognitive processes
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