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Initiation of Polyene Macrolide Biosynthesis: Interplay between Polyketide Synthase Domains and Modules as Revealed via Domain Swapping, Mutagenesis, and Heterologous Complementation▿†

By Sondre Heia, Sven E. F. Borgos, Håvard Sletta, Leticia Escudero, Elena M. Seco, Francisco Malpartida, Trond E. Ellingsen and Sergey B. Zotchev


Polyene macrolides are important antibiotics used to treat fungal infections in humans. In this work, acyltransferase (AT) domain swaps, mutagenesis, and cross-complementation with heterologous polyketide synthase domain (PKS) loading modules were performed in order to facilitate production of new analogues of the polyene macrolide nystatin. Replacement of AT0 in the nystatin PKS loading module NysA with the propionate-specific AT1 from the nystatin PKS NysB, construction of hybrids between NysA and the loading module of rimocidin PKS RimA, and stepwise exchange of specific amino acids in the AT0 domain by site-directed mutagenesis were accomplished. However, none of the NysA mutants constructed was able to initiate production of new nystatin analogues. Nevertheless, many NysA mutants and hybrids were functional, providing for different levels of nystatin biosynthesis. An interplay between certain residues in AT0 and an active site residue in the ketosynthase (KS)-like domain of NysA in initiation of nystatin biosynthesis was revealed. Some hybrids between the NysA and RimA loading modules carrying the NysA AT0 domain were able to prime rimocidin PKS with both acetate and butyrate units upon complementation of a rimA-deficient mutant of the rimocidin/CE-108 producer Streptomyces diastaticus. Expression of the PimS0 loading module from the pimaricin producer in the same host, however, resulted in production of CE-108 only. Taken together, these data indicate relaxed substrate specificity of NysA AT0 domain, which is counteracted by a strict specificity of the first extender module KS domain in the nystatin PKS of Streptomyces noursei

Topics: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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