Article thumbnail

Gender differences in cardiovascular disease and comorbid depression.

By Anne Maria Möller-Leimkühler


Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (eg, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity,) and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect la differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, The results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gensier aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depresion, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective

Topics: Clinical Research
Publisher: Les Laboratoires Servier
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles


  1. Bad but bold: ambivalent attitudes toward men predict gender inequality in 16 nations.
  2. (2001). Development of gender differences in depression: an elaborated cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory. Psychol Bull.
  3. (2001). Gender and health: reassessing patterns and explanations. Soc Sci Med.
  4. Gender as a health determinant and implications for health education. Health Educ Behav.
  5. (1994). Gender differences in adult health: an international comparison.
  6. Gender differences in depression. Critical review.
  7. Gender differences in health: a Canadian study of the psychosocial, structural and behavioural determinants of health. Soc Sci Med.
  8. Is there evidence for a male depressive syndrome in inpatients with major depression?
  9. Prevention of male suicides: lessons from the Gotland study.
  10. (1999). Social inequalities in health: are there gender differences? Soc Sci Med.
  11. (2006). Subjective well-being and ´male depression´ in male adolescents.
  12. (2006). The male heart and the female mind: a study in the gendering of antidepressants and cardiovascular drugs in advertisements in Irish medical publication. Soc Sci Med.