Introduction. Many patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have impaired glucose regulation or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). We investigated characteristics of NAFLD patients associated with hyperglycemia. Methods. During a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), serum glucose and insulin were measured in 152 NAFLD patients. Results. 48.7% of NAFLD patients had hyperglycemia. Age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.13), body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01–1.25), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92–0.98) proved to be independent predictors of hyperglycemia. After OGTT, 30 min insulin was lower in hyperglycemic patients (74.2 ± 49.7 versus 94.5 ± 53.9 μIU/mL, P = 0.02), while 90 min insulin (170.1 ± 84.6 versus 122.9 ± 97.7 μU/mL, P = 0.01) and 120 min insulin (164.0 ± 101.2 versus 85.3 ± 61.9 μIU/mL, P < 0.01) were higher. Conclusions. NAFLD patients with higher BMI, lower HDL-C, or older age were more likely to have impaired glucose metabolism. An OGTT could be of value for early diagnosis of DM among this population
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