Next-generation sequencing (NGS) enables the highly sensitive measurement of whole transcriptomes. We report the first application to our knowledge of this technology to the analysis of RNA from a CD4+ T cell line infected with intact HIV. We sequenced the total mRNA from infected cells and detected differences in the expression of both host and viral mRNA. Viral reads represented a large portion of the total mapped sequencing reads: approximately 20% at 12 h postinfection (hpi) and 40% at 24 hpi. We also detected a small but significant suppression of T cell activation-related genes at 12 hpi. This suppression persisted and expanded by 24 hpi, providing new possible markers of virus-induced T cell cytopathology. By 24 hpi, the expression of over 50% of detectable host loci was also altered, indicating widespread alteration of host processes, including RNA processing, splicing, and transport to an extent not previously reported. In addition, next-generation sequencing provided insights into alternative viral RNA splice events and the expression of noncoding RNAs, including microRNA host genes
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