Article thumbnail

Macrophage Autophagy and Oxidative Stress: An Ultrastructural and Immunoelectron Microscopical Study

By Ida Perrotta, Valentina Carito, Emilio Russo, Sandro Tripepi, Saveria Aquila and Giuseppe Donato


The word autophagy broadly refers to the cellular catabolic processes that lead to the removal of damaged cytosolic proteins or cell organelles through lysosomes. Although autophagy is often observed during programmed cell death, it may also serve as a cell survival mechanism. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species within tissues and cells induces various defense mechanisms or programmed cell death. It has been shown that, besides inducing apoptosis, oxidative stress can also induce autophagy. To date, however, the regulation of autophagy in response to oxidative stress remains largely elusive and poorly understood. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the ratio between oxidative stress and autophagy in macrophages after oxidant exposure (AAPH) and to investigate the ultrastructural localization of beclin-1, a protein essential for autophagy, under basal and stressful conditions. Our data provide evidence that oxidative stress induces autophagy in macrophages. We demonstrate, for the first time by immunoelectron microscopy, the subcellular localization of beclin-1 in autophagic cells

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles


  1. (2008). A .T .H o y e ,J .E .D a v o r e n ,P .W i p f ,M .P .F i n k ,a n dV .E .K a g a n , “Targeting mitochondria,” Accounts of Chemical Research,v o l .
  2. (1994). a b a ,K .T a k e s h i g e ,N .B a b a ,a n dY .O h s u m i ,“ U l t r a s t r u c -tural analysis of the autophagic process in yeast: detection of autophagosomes and their characterization,”
  3. (2009). A machine-learning approach to the prediction of oxidative stress
  4. (2010). a n g ,J .M a ,Y .T a ne ta l . ,“ A m y l o i d - β1-42M induces reactive oxygenspecies-mediated autophagiccell deathinU87 and SH-SY5Y cells,”
  5. (2011). are required forautophagyinduced by 11’-deoxyverticillin A, which precedes caspase-dependent apoptosis,”
  6. (1993). Autologous lymphocytes prevent the death of monocytes in culture and promote, as do GM-CSF, IL-3 and M-CSF, their differentiation into macrophages,”
  7. (2006). Autophagic programmed cell death by selective catalase degradation,”
  8. (2004). Autophagy as a cell death and tumor suppressor mechanism,”
  9. (2000). Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation,”
  10. (2008). Autophagy as a second level protective process in conferring resistance to environmentally-induced oxidative stress,”
  11. Autophagy gene polymorphisms influence the interaction of E coli and macrophages
  12. (2005). Autophagy in cell death: an innocent convict?”
  13. (2008). Autophagy: healthy eating and self-digestion for gastroenterologists,”
  14. (2007). Autophagy: process and function,”
  15. (2004). B.Thompson,“Death by design:apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy,”
  16. (2001). Beclin 1 contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal that is required for its autophagy and tumor suppressor function,”
  17. (1966). C.deDuve andR.Wattiaux,“Functions oflysosomes,”Annual Review of Physiology,
  18. (2008). D e l g a d o ,R .A .E l m a o u e d ,A .S .D a v i s ,G .K y e i ,a n d V. Deretic, “Toll-like receptors control autophagy,”
  19. (2009). erry ,C.H uangetal.,“LPS-induc edaut ophagy is mediated by oxidative signaling in cardiomyocytes and is associated with cytoprotection,”
  20. G u t i e r r e z ,S .S .M a s t e r
  21. (2008). h e n ,E .M c M i l l a n - W a r d ,J .K o n g ,S .J .I s r a e l s ,a n dS
  22. (2007). Hoetzel et al., “Mechanisms of cell death in oxidative stress,”
  23. (2008). How to live long and prosper: autophagy, mitochondria,
  24. (2007). i g a ,Y .S a i t o ,Y .Y o s h i d a ,a n dE .N i k i ,“ C y t o t o x i ce ffects of various stressorsonPC12cells: involvementofoxidative stress and effect of antioxidants,”NeuroToxicology,
  25. (2008). Identification of Barkor as a mammalian autophagy-specific factor forBeclin 1and classIII
  26. (2006). K i m ,Y .L i ,a n dJ .H a n ,“ A u t o p h a g yc o n t r i b u t e s to caspase-independent macrophage cell death,”
  27. Linking ER stress to autophagy: potential implications for cancer therapy,”
  28. (2010). Liuet al.,“Antitumor effect of matrine in human hepatoma G2 cells by inducing apoptosis andOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 7 autophagy,”
  29. (2010). Logerfo et al., “Oxidative stress biomarkers in mitochondrial myopathies, basally and after cysteine donor supplementation,”
  30. (1973). Mise en Evidence d’un appareil provacuolaire et de son rfle dans l’utophagie cenulaire et l’origine des vacuoles,”
  31. (2009). Monitoring autophagy by electron microscopy
  32. (2010). Negative regulation of autophagy,”
  33. (2009). redox signaling,and ventricular remodeling,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling,
  34. (2009). Regulation of autophagy by reactive oxygen species (ROS): implications for cancer progression and treatment,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling,
  35. (2010). Regulation of mammalian autophagy in physiology and pathophysiology,”
  36. (2007). Regulation ofautophagyby NFκB transcription factor and reactives oxygen species,”
  37. (2000). Role of reactive oxygen species in the regulation of physiological functions,”
  38. (2007). Selective clearanceofmacrophagesinatheroscleroticplaques by autophagy,”
  39. (1990). Studies on the mechanisms of autophagy: formation of the autophagic vacuole,” J o u r n a lo fC e l lB i o l o g y ,
  40. (2003). Takekawa et al., “NF-κB inhibits TNFinduced accumulation of ROS that mediate prolonged MAPK activation and necrotic cell death,”
  41. (2009). The dyspeptic macrophage 30 years later: an update in the pathogenesis
  42. (2003). The molecular mechanism of autophagy,”
  43. (2011). The regulation of autophagy— unanswered questions,” J o u r n a lo fC e l lS c i e n c e ,
  44. (1996). Ultrastructural and biochemical characterization of autophagy in higher plant cells subjected to carbon deprivation: control by the supply of mitochondriawithrespiratory substrates,”J o u r n a lo fC e l lB i o l -ogy,