Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is increasingly recognized in adults. It is an inflammatory disease of the esophageal mucosa, with variable presentation, unresponsive to acid suppression therapy. The diagnosis requires histological confirmation of intense eosinophilic infiltration on esophageal biopsy specimen, however exact criteria required to make a diagnosis of EE is still being debated and a clear differentiation from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is important. Allergen elimination or anti-inflammatory therapy may be effective in such patients. The imperfect diagnostic criteria for EE mandate an understanding of the immunology and the pathophysiology of the disease. It may facilitate the introduction of novel treatment modalities in an individual unresponsive to acid suppression therapy. This paper describes basic elements of the immune-mediated injury to the esophageal mucosa and management aspects to provide a better understanding of the condition
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