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Private devotion in England on the eve of the Reformation illustrated from works printed or reprinted in the period 1530-40

By Jan Rhodes

Abstract

This is the first attempt to provide a detailed description of the different types of devotional literature (excluding all liturgical books, biblical translations, doctrinal and polemic works, saintS lives and sermons) available in print to English readers in the years immediately preceding England's break with Rome. It shows that there were far more Catholic works of devotion, many of them written or printed for the first time 1520 - 35, than has previously been recognized. It is also clear that this flourishing literature came to a sudden and decisive end in 1535, although the tradition lived on unofficially to be taken up by the English Recusants. The leading themes of this traditional literature are indicated in chapters on treatises about confession and prayer, the mass, the life and Passion of Christ, on tribulation, death and the Last Things, while more general teaching about the Christian life addressed to religious, contemplatives and lay people, and the humanist and Protestant contribution to this literature is also discussed. The treatises are doctrinally sound and on the whole advocate moderation and common-sense; they avoid many of the weaknesses of popular non-literary devotion, including the Marioleatry and excessive morbidity for which the late middle ages are often condemned. Some of the weaknesses of the Catholic tradition are suggested by comparison with the more rational and secular attitudes of Christian humanist , authors, notably Erasmus, available during the 1530s. The Protestants, whose treatises become increasingly common, despite official censorship, during the decade until they dominate its second half, carry the humanist~ reform much further, and break with the Catholic Church. Traditional devotional topics and audiences are displaced by doctrinal and biblical teaching addressed to lay people. The Bible replaces the Church's authority and there is more emphasis on the spiritual and social dimensions of religion

Year: 1974
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.dur.ac.uk:701
Provided by: Durham e-Theses

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  1. (?1536) STC 10608 The example of euy1l tonges.
  2. (1927). 11 " " " " 11 " " :£lagers, D . 11 . 415 I1Imago Pietatis" Festschrift fUr rJIax J. Friedlgnder zum 60 Geburstage,
  3. (1904). 11 11 tI The l ater 1011ards Sir Tho:m:..s ~'iyatt and his backFround A history of t anestry English spirituality Lent and ho1v "I·reek Stations of the cross London 1965 Stay-Sord 1964 (3rd edn) \'lnkefie1d 1973 London 1963 London
  4. 1530 (Other edns (1496], 1514) STC 17542 MARY, the Blessed Virgin. Here after folowith the boke callyd the myrroure of oure Lady very necessary for all re1ygyous persones. fol. Richard Fawkes,
  5. (1915). 1531 Whitford's version. STC
  6. 1534 - 12 Dec. Written by John Fewterer of Syon Abbey, and based, at least in part,on Ludolphus of Saxony's Vita Christi.
  7. (1968). 1535 (An earlier edn, [1533-4), Devereu.x C57 .1, and repr. The" Ju1ius Exc1usius" of Erasmus, translated by P. Pascal, B1oomington - London,
  8. 1545 STC 10437 (Devereux Checklist Cl.2) ERASMUS, Desiderius. Prouerbes or adagies with newe addicions gathered out of the Chiliad~s of Erasmus by Richard Tauerner.
  9. 1553 (Another edn. 1531: the later edn. reprinted, with introduction
  10. 1560) Contents: Treatise of charite: An exhortacion to young .
  11. 1580) (Copy also at Ushaw College, Durham: Anr ed.1579) STC 13457 HlLARIE, Hugh. The resurreccion of the masse / with the wonderful vertues of the same / newly set forth vnto the greate hnrtes enne / ioyo nnd cornforte of nIl the cntho1ykes 8-.
  12. 16- (in 8 t s) T. Petyt [?lS48] This edition does not have the dedication to Thomas Cromwell and so is presumably after 1540.
  13. 189-95); 1531 (at H) - RSTC 25421.5; 1532 (at r.I) - RSTC 25421'6.) This ",ork is not by ~'Jhi tford but by a Carthusian of Shene, Vii th a prefatory "exortacion to t h e reder s by a brother of Syonll - v7ho may or may not be Uhitford. STC
  14. 2 earlier edns,
  15. (1530). 23 r.:arch . (Other edns l1496J,
  16. (1955). 35-152 "IHddle English prose and its audience" Anglia XC
  17. 532. (Other edns: 1537: 1544 ; [ ?c.1548J; 1557; 1573 ) Translated by "Gentian 3:eruet, at the desyre of naister Geffrey Pole", perhaps v 'Ti th s one assis t ance from T.
  18. (1953). 74- 86 . The work is mentioned in Bonde's Pilgr vrnage,
  19. (1537). 8 l~ ov . 455 STC 25426 \mI TFOPJ), Ri char d r. .I'nr edJ t. '.r;o / = A wer~e ~or housholders . or for them that haue t he 6ydynge or gouernaur.ce of ony co~pany .
  20. (1928). 84- 8 tiThe Five ~.rour..ds of our Lord" l'T
  21. A 1yte11 boke of good maners for children ••• 8-.
  22. (1953). A booke of Christian exercise apperteining to resolution, that is, shewing howe that we should resolue our selues to become Christians in deede: by R.P. Perused ••• by Edmund Bunny.
  23. A centur'{ of t he English book-trade Fifteenth centur y books H211.dlists of books printed bv English Drinte~s 1501-56 The r::ass and the 1I'n l' h ..., _ g lS_ reformer s " Tudor ideo.ls The Ada~es of Erasmus The colloquies (transl.
  24. (1964). A deuout treatise vpon the Pater noster / made fyrst in 1ntyn by the moost famous doctour mnyster Erasmus Roterodamus / and tourned in to eng1isshe by a yong vertuous and well lerned genty1woman of .xix. yere of age.
  25. (1960). A deuout treatyse called the tre & xii frutes of the holy goost, Gron~ngen,
  26. A paraphrasis / vpon all the Psalmes of Dauid / made by Iohannes Campensis / reader of the Hebrue lecture / in the vniuersite of Louane / and translated out of Latyne into Eng1yshe. 16- (in 6's) (Antwerp, widow of C.
  27. (1926). A sb.or t ti tIe cat 2.10m.e of London
  28. A sermon made in the cathedrall churche of
  29. (1957). Ad i:nprioendlL'7l SOlUI:l". Li1;rar;y:: I X: (1 9~4 ) 242-7 tlObservations on t he iconogr o.phy of t he .,;ound of Christ 1 s side" TV;Cl :c-r.
  30. and such as have procured Gods wrath by cursing and blaming, which we call execration. S-. for Wi11iam Towreo1de. by the assent of Richard Watkins [n.d.] (Another edn.
  31. (1972). Anr ed 1639) STC 20193 (Ned Bibl 3764) Oerteine -pr ayers and godly meditacyons very nedefull f or euer;y Christen. 16". " :'..· l ~ rlb OY' o·r ner me I !
  32. (1931). Anr transl. 1589.) STC 20061 (Devereux C84.2) PLUTARCH. The gouernaunce of good helthe, by the moste excellent phylo8ophcr Plutarche, the moote eloquent Eraamus beynge interpretoure. 8- (in
  33. (1918). As~ ects of death (3rd edn) London
  34. At Parishe I by me Peter congah"
  35. (1954). Backgrounds of the title Speculum in medi eval literatur e" Speculum XXIX
  36. Blessed Virgin. An exposicion vpon the songe of the blessed virgine Mary, called Magnificat, where vnto are added the songes of salue regina, Benedictus and Nunc dimittis. Translated ~ut of latine in to Englysh by Ihon Hollybush.
  37. (1970). Bushe became bishop of Bristol
  38. by me T~:eoDhyl l Emlos, [ ?1540]. STC 22899 SOLar'rON. The sayi n e:es or prouerbes of kL ~ Salo::non / "Hi th t he aTl..8w"ers of r,Iarcolphus / transl ated out of frenche i n to englysshe.
  39. (1973). Byddell for v I. Marshall [c.1535-6J (repr.
  40. (1949). C ont 8r:rpl ation in t h e Scale of 1')erf'ect; on" Dmmside RevieH Lr VII
  41. Charlier de. Tabula d'Arte moriendi. 4-Strassburg~ 1482 GERSON, Jean Charlier de. Gcrson de remediis contra pusillaniamitatem scrupuloaitntem contra \ dec~ptionas inimici consolaciones et subtiles eius temptaciones. 4-
  42. Christes actes and oure holye father the Popes. 8-.
  43. (1932). Clebsch, v t t •
  44. Contains:A preparation to the crosse and to denth, A mirroure or glasse to know thyselfe and To teach a person willingly to die, and not to feare death.
  45. Copy also at L id t h 9 l eaves of ? mid XVI century ms prayers bound h I front . Other edns in Latin (1531- 8
  46. Copy also at O. . 2 other edns of same date, one Latin.
  47. Cosin V.V.12 has the prayers in Latin but rubrics etc. in English. while BM ms. Arundel 285 has a free translation in Scottish dialect -
  48. (1914). de Worde C ?153lJ Whitford's version. 380 STC
  49. de Worde for John Byddel1, 1533 - 15 Nov. (Facs repr. English Experience Series vOl.156: Other edns.
  50. deuoute intercessyon and prayer, to our sauyour Iesu Chryste.
  51. (1930). Di a10gus i~ter s ensun et r ationem . A dialogue betvlene sensual yte and reason. Lately trar.sl ated out of Lat yn into Englyshe by Robert \1hyt t y~ton p~et laureat C!.: nOl-Te nevlely imprynted .
  52. edns: (1500J and Maunsell, The First Part of the Catalogue, 1595, Alv notes a 4°edn. by de Warde, 1531, apparently no longer extant. Versions of The Abbey and~ Charter are reprinted by Horstman,
  53. (1937). edns: 1528 - (See '1'11e Li brarv4 XVII,
  54. (1968). EnGlish humanists and r ei ornati on politics r epr.
  55. Eucharius Ceruicornius,
  56. Fakes, [c.1523] For some of the corresponding mss. versions, see
  57. (1961). filli2.m Flete 2nd the De remediis contra terrlPtaciones" in I'~ed i ev 8.1 Studies nreaer..ted to Aubre:! G\vynn,
  58. (1949). for note -of a 1530 edn. apparently translated by Whitford.) STC 5606 - 20882-3 src 5610 ___ Here begynneth a lamentable complaynte that ye sbule maketh of the wretched lyfe of the body.
  59. (1548). For t he original, by Peter of
  60. For the nolici for housholding cp.
  61. (1934). For various articles on the authorship and Pynson's ms:
  62. for vl. Pickeringe, l ?1560) (Am' edn: 1602) STC 13052 ___ " A pore helpe, The buklar and defence of .mother holy kyrke, and weapen to driue hence al that against her wircke.
  63. (1929). Further borrowings from Ancrene Riwle" HLR XXIV
  64. Hans Luft ~ntwerp. Johannes HoochstratenJ 1530 (Other edns:
  65. (1900). he Drotestc,nt mi nd of t he English ref ormption Fe't: HpYen 1964-B21timore, .1950 London
  66. (1969). Here unto be also added Mimi Publiani.
  67. (1903). Hoocr..straten: ?1530J (repr. A.U. r ollard, An En,o;lish
  68. (1964). I~evr York 1961-5 T!le e2nce of o.eat h al!d t he :Tev,r-
  69. In the name of god here begynneth the rule of the lyuynge of the bretherne and systers of the order of penytentes. 4-. W. de Worde. 1510 (Copy at Bamb.) (cp.
  70. Includes "~deu oute medytacyon in s8.yenge c1cuoutly ye psalter of our l ady". On author shi p s ee: rLB. Eackett "V ii11iam. F1ete en d the De . aemedi is Contra. Temnt a cionesll in Hediev8.1 Studi es pr es ented "GO Aut re-'
  71. (1964). indul;:Cl:.ces ·in the Latin' church (; vOls) Philadelphia 1896 Sir ~ho~a~ · E ~v ot. · Tudor hUllal1ist \ The di scar ded L~age C ~ mbrid Ge
  72. Iso XlCxtu. b&l"""
  73. J._ s soc~ ,;nl. :~~~: (1874) :2- 9 Si t"rell, G. !l 11 " 0::1i t h
  74. (1928). Jahrhundert" Beitr~ge zur Geschichte der Fhilosophie und Theologie der l-ii ttBlal ters XXVII
  75. lately translated in to englysshe [ by Leonard Cox J and fyrste a goodly prologue.
  76. (1973). Literary Da t rona~e in t he middle ai;es I ~art i n Buc er and the English re ; orm ~tion ifLediev8.1 number symbolisr1 Al t er:glishe Legenden Yorkshi-re "!riters (2 vols) ~orae Beatae Mariae Vi rgin';s Oxford
  77. made by ~ieram of Ferrar ye. [i.e. same t p . as above but LatinEnglish edn with no additions] S ~C 21791, hOvTever, contains e):positions of both :osalm
  78. Mons perfectionis / otherwyse in Englysshe / the hy11e of perfeccyon. 46. W. de Worde, 1501. (Other edns 1496, 1497, [1497-8] : modernized version
  79. Nugent The Thought and Culture of the English Renaissance, pp.393-7: there seems to be no evidence for the twenty editions claimed for the work before 1577. src 5550
  80. (1935). Oeuvres com pletes (ed P2.ris (1960-71) P.J . G1orieux ) (8 volsin 9) The story of the relics of'
  81. (1956). On the author see
  82. One of Fewterer's sources.
  83. Orologiun sapi enti a e, see STC 3305. STC 23552 S\\'I1:J1TIlRTOr, Thomas . A mustre of sCismatyke bysshoppes of Rome / otherHyse naming thenselues popes / TIoche necessarye to be redde of a1 the kynges true subiectes .
  84. Other edns 1493,
  85. (1533). Other edns 1534, [after 1548] ).
  86. (1950). Pre-refor08.tion En;'?:l and Church "ro od carvings : a westcount ry study C a~bridg e 1906- 8
  87. (1546). pronounced by \,lyllyam Hugh, to his frynd lyeng on his death bedde.
  88. Pynson "and be for to s ell at ye signe of saynt Iohn Euangelyst in s aynt Nartyns p2.r:>rsshe / besyde Chz.rynge crosse",
  89. (1937). ranB1ation by Nicho1as Love of Mountgrace Charterhouse.
  90. (1962). reCier:i.cGldschc 'oi'olio" y C:'.y.)hi e van 1 :;00 tat 1 S4.o Juan Luis Vives The t :!1ou .~rht and culture of t he ~n:,:lish re r2. i ss~1,:c e London
  91. Redman [71530J (Other edns 1493 and [?c.1530J cp.
  92. Redman [c.157:4-5J These are t he prayers of Fev;terer's T'!yrrour, STO 14553, ultimately derived f rom t he fJ
  93. (1538). remedy ayenst the troubles of tem~taqons.
  94. (1957). rhe function of PsaLr:l XC i n Tho::las =·~o re' s A dyalogue of corr,forte" Horeana VI (~:6 ~) 61-7 "Sir Tr.omas Elyot E.nd t he English refornation" r.rchiv flh Reforoations - Geschicht XLVIII
  95. (1961). Richard ' Pynso~ and t he Holy Blood of Hayles" Libr ary5 XIII
  96. (1956). Richard \'!hitford and St Ignatius' visit to EnglCL'Yld" Archiv. Hist
  97. s Er.?lish R eD rL ~ts, vo1.27, 1871 and English B~n eri e~ce 701. 485, 1972) STC 21472 RYCKES , John. The ynage of loue compyled by Iohn Ryckes / b2..cheler in d.iu.ini te / al'l obseruant fryre.
  98. s old by 1'i . Telot son: ?1545 ] (other edns: 1539.
  99. (1964). see lIIedium PEvum XXXIII
  100. (1501). Serrnons,-ESpp.33-57) LAUDENBURG, Reinhardus de. Passio domini nostri Iesu Christi pre·dicata siue compilata per modum quadragesimalis a venerabi1i patre Reinhardo de Laudenburg sacre theo1ogie 1ectore. 4- (in 8's)
  101. Skot (?1537) (Other edns 1507,
  102. (1973). src 7270
  103. (1967). STC 10474 (Devereux C38.2) ERASMUS, Desiderius. De immensa dei misericordia. A sermon of the excedynge great mercy of god / made by ye moste famous doctour maister Eras. Rot. Translated out of Latine
  104. STC 17532 The Martiloge in englysshe after the vse of the chirche of salisbury / & as it is redde
  105. (1958). STC 20882=5605 The remors of conscyence. 4·. 1,'1 . de ~ :l orde, [ ?1532-4J (Other edns c.1510 -RSTC 20881'3 vlas STC 20883 and c.1515
  106. (1971). STC 7630 ELYOT, Sir Thomas. The bankette of sapience. 8- T. Berthe1et, 1539 (Other edns. 1542, 1545,· 1557, 1564) src 7635 ELYOT, Sir Thomas. The' boke named the gouernour, deuised by sir Thomas Elyot Knight.
  107. STC suggests Zurich as the place of publication.
  108. (1973). Sylvester's Cure & gouernaunce of a housholde -STC 11918 _ A glasse of the truthe. 8-. T. Berthelet D1530] (Anr. ed [?1531]) STC 12005=17788
  109. (1953). t ssoc.3 XVI
  110. t: 1500) and r ?c.1530J by Berthelet, STC 12955: repr. from mss,
  111. (1967). T~~ee 14th century English London
  112. (1925). The \'1hole repr. as The cell of self-kno,olledge.
  113. The 1531 de "T orde edn. noted by Duff, ::2.ndlists is Lot extant at Lambeth, and may be t he result of confusion Hi t~ t h e 1521 edn.) Transl at ed fro~ La f1eur des co~~ndem en s de Dieu ([1499] 1510, 1536
  114. (1926). The bibliography that follows is divided into two parts. The first covers early printed books, most of them printed before 1550, used in the preparation of this study. The order followed is that of
  115. (1619). The complaynte and testamen't of a popinjay which lyeth sore wounded and maye not dye, tyll euery man hathe herd what he sayth: Wherfore gentyll readers haste you yt he were oute 'of his payne.
  116. (1891). The Compleat Works Of thetEminent Minister of Gods Word Mr. Isaac Ambrose. fol. for Rowland Reynolds, 1674 . STC 659 An answere to a
  117. The crafte to lyue well and to dye well.
  118. (1962). The debate of the body and the soul and :9arochial Christianity" Sneculum XXXVII
  119. (1966). The doctrine o ~ the E~f±ish gentlenan in ~he 16~h century r.11r_·e lrl·'Y1 __ .g 1 ~ boo'r (ed fjl ,"
  120. (1969). The dyaloge called Funus and the Epicure,
  121. The English Primers,
  122. (1905). The essential Erasmus (ed J .? DOlan) Engli sh art 1307-1461 The flOl-ierin.;;: of t he I:li dd1e a ,0"es '[he t:1o?'Jc of Farne (ed H. Far ner)
  123. (1968). The eucharistic prayer" CQR CLXIX
  124. The first part of the catalogue of English " printed bookes. Which concerneth such matters of Diuinitie. "
  125. The letters which ~ohn Ashwel Priour of Newnham Abbey besids Bedforde / sente secretely to the Bishope of Lyncolne / in the yeare of our lorde M.D.xxxvij
  126. (1534). The Life and Works of Thomas Lupset pp.233-62) STC 16939 LUPSET, Thomas. A treatise of charitie. SO.T. Be~helet, I / ' 1533 (Other edns., 1535,' 1539. 1 t d JAG sen. repr. •• ee, The Life',and Works of Thomas Lupset pp.205-3l) STC 16962
  127. The pater noster spoken of ye sinner: God answerynge him at euery
  128. This is a later edition of STC 14546. STC 14575 (JESUS) A treatis e wherin Christe and his techinges J are c ompared with the pope and his doinges.
  129. This is a slightly different (earlier) version of STC 3275-6. STC 6928 A dyurna11: for deuoute soules: to ordre themse1fe therafter. 8- (in 4's) R. Wyer [c.1533J (Anr edn a f~w months later) The piece is also copied
  130. (1511). This is the begynnynge / and contynuance of the Pylgrymage of Sir Richard Guylforde knyght-••• And howe he went with his seruauntes and company towardes Iherusalem. 4- (in 6's)
  131. (1913). This is Whitford's version. For the Latin original see PL CLXXX1V, 1173-4. STC
  132. This, together ;'iith the contents of STC 25416. v!ould seem to make up a composite volume similar to:-and probably earlier than,
  133. Thomas Cromwell's son. STC 256 ST ALBAN. Here begynnethe the glorious lyfe and passion of saint Albon prothomartyr of Englande / and also the lyfe and passion of saint Amphabel / whiche conuerted saint Albon to the fayth of Christe.
  134. (1908). Thomas Rychard ••• to the instant desyre of the ryght worshypfu1 esguyer Mayster Robert Langdon. 1525. (repr. EETS 170, earlier edn. "[
  135. to sell at London in Southwarke by me Peter Treuerys",
  136. translated by ~'iil
  137. Translated out of hygh Almayne into Englyshe.
  138. (1962). ttVernacular instruction of t he laity in the later middle a.ges in England lt Jnl Re1ieious History
  139. (1923). Two treatises, one of the latter day of iudgement: the other of the ioyes of heauen.
  140. vol 473, 1972)" STC 17034-12955a LYDGATE, John. This boke called the Temple of glasse is in many place amended I and late diligently imprynted.
  141. Wi ttenberge by Hans Lufte" [actually London"

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