Article thumbnail

The interplay of inflammation and cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus

By J Michelle Kahlenberg and Mariana J Kaplan

Abstract

Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have up to a 50-fold increased risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Recent advances in the etiology of vascular damage in this disease stress the interplay of lupus-specific inflammatory factors with traditional cardiac risk factors, leading to increased endothelial damage. This review analyzes the putative role that immune dysregulation and lupus-specific factors may play in the pathogenesis of premature vascular damage in this disease. The potential role of various cytokines, in particular type I interferons, in the development of accelerated atherosclerosis is examined. Potential therapeutic targets are discussed

Topics: Review
Publisher: BioMed Central
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3157642
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2008). A: Accelerated atherosclerosis is independent of feeding high fat diet in systemic lupus erythematosus– susceptible LDLr−/− mice. Lupus
  2. (2010). A: Antibodies to apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein, and C-reactive protein are associated with disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  3. (2009). A: Oxldl/2gpi complex and anti-oxldl/2gpi In Sle: prevalence and correlates. Autoimmunity
  4. (2010). AJ: Innate immune proteins C1q and mannan-binding lectin enhance clearance of atherogenic lipoproteins by human monocytes and macrophages.
  5. (2010). Anti-CRP antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Joint Bone Spine
  6. (2002). Antibodies to high-density lipoprotein and beta2-glycoprotein I are inversely correlated with paraoxonase activity in systemic lupus erythematosus and primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Arthritis Rheum
  7. (2002). Anticardiolipin antibody titre and plasma homocysteine level independently predict intima media thickness of carotid arteries in subjects with idiopathic antiphospholipid antibodies. Lupus
  8. (2009). Attenuated atherosclerosis upon IL-17R signaling disruption in LDLr defi cient mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun
  9. (2002). BC: The apoptotic ligands TRAIL, TWEAK, and Fas ligand mediate monocyte death induced by autologous lupus T cells.
  10. (2009). BH: Dysfunctional proinfl ammatory high-density lipoproteins confer increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum
  11. (2009). Camici PG: Chronic infl ammation and coronary microvascular dysfunction in patients without risk factors for coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J
  12. (2009). Cardiovascular risk assessment and treatment in systemic lupus erythematosus. Best Practice Res Clin Rheumatol
  13. (2010). Carmona L: European League Against Rheumatism recommendations for monitoring patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in clinical practice and in observational studies. Ann Rheumatic Dis
  14. (2010). Carvalho JF: Review on anti-lipoprotein lipase antibodies. Clin Chimica Acta
  15. (2000). Circulating endothelial cells and vascular injury in systemic lupus erythematosus. Curr Rheumatol Rep
  16. (2010). Clancy RM: Association of plasma soluble E-selectin and adiponectin with carotid plaque in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Atherosclerosis
  17. (2009). CM: Adipocytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship to infl ammation, insulin resistance and coronary atherosclerosis. Lupus
  18. (2010). CM: Dendritic cells in atherosclerotic disease. Clin Immunol
  19. (2008). CM: Novel cardiovascular risk factors in premature coronary atherosclerosis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. J
  20. (2003). CM: Premature coronary-artery atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  21. (2007). CM: Synergistic proinfl ammatory eff ects of the antiviral cytokine interferonalpha and Toll-like receptor 4 ligands in the atherosclerotic plaque. Circulation
  22. (2009). Complement regulator CD59 protects against atherosclerosis by restricting the formation of complement membrane attack complex. Circ Res
  23. (2008). Coronary calcium in systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors, but not with disease activity.
  24. (2009). Costenbader KH: Systemic lupus erythematosus and the risk of cardiovascular disease: Results from the nurses’ health study. Arthritis Rheum
  25. (2010). CS: The relation of interleukin 17 (IL-17) and IL-23 to Th1/Th2 cytokines and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  26. (2005). D’Cruz DP: Prevalence of an abnormal ankle-brachial index in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome: preliminary data. Ann Rheumatic Dis
  27. (2007). Dutz JP: New concepts in antimalarial use and mode of action in dermatology. Dermatol Ther
  28. (2010). E: NLRP3 infl ammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystals. Nature
  29. (2008). Endothelial cells in allograft rejection. Transplantation
  30. (2010). Endothelial function and its implications for cardiovascular and renal disease in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatic Dis Clin North Am
  31. (2008). Endothelial function and markers of endothelial activation in relation to cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  32. (2003). Frostegard J: TNF-alpha: a link between hypertriglyceridaemia and infl ammation in SLE patients with cardiovascular disease. Lupus
  33. (2010). Fukuhara S: Statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, function as inhibitors of cellular and molecular components involved in type I interferon production. Arthritis Rheum
  34. (2010). Grupo Latino Americano de Estudio del Lupus Eritematoso (Gladel): Antimalarial treatment may have a time-dependent eff ect on lupus survival: data from a multinational Latin American inception cohort. Arthritis Rheum
  35. (2010). Hachulla E: Endothelial dysfunction in systemic lupus patients with low disease activity: evaluation by quantifi cation and characterization of circulating endothelial microparticles, role of anti-endothelial cell antibodies. Rheumatology
  36. (2007). Haematopoietic and endothelial progenitor cells are defi cient in quiescent systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheumatic Dis
  37. (2007). Hahn BH: Atherosclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus - mechanistic basis of the association. Curr Opin Immunol
  38. (1997). Huang CC: Dietary fat aff ects lipids and anticardiolipin antibody levels in autoimmune-prone NZB/W F1 mice.
  39. Hydroxychloroquine use in the Baltimore Lupus Cohort: eff ects on lipids, glucose and thrombosis.
  40. (2004). IN: Prevention of cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus - proposed guidelines for risk factor management. Rheumatology
  41. (2004). IN: Systemic lupus erythematosus: an independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction in women. Circulation
  42. (2005). Infl ammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease.
  43. (2011). Infl ammatory cytokines imbalance in the very early phase of acute coronary syndrome: correlations with angiographic fi ndings and in-hospital events. Infl ammation
  44. (1987). Inoue T: Serum levels of interferons in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Immunol
  45. (2003). Interferon and granulopoiesis signatures in systemic lupus erythematosus blood.
  46. (2009). Interferon-alpha mediates suppression of C-reactive protein: explanation for muted C-reactive protein response in lupus fl ares? Arthritis Rheum
  47. (2009). IR: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist rosiglitazone ameliorates murine lupus by induction of adiponectin. J
  48. (2008). JC: The role of complement in atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol
  49. (2003). JE: Prevalence and correlates of accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  50. (2007). JE: Rate and determinants of progression of atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum
  51. (2006). JE: Relationship of antiphospholipid antibodies to cardiovascular manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum
  52. (2007). JE: Systemic lupus erythematosus predicts increased left ventricular mass. Circulation
  53. (1986). Kajdacsy-Balla A: Low density neutrophils in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and acute rheumatic fever. Arthritis Rheum
  54. (1997). Kuller LH: Age-specifi c incidence rates of myocardial infarction and angina in women with systemic lupus erythematosus: comparison with the Framingham Study.
  55. (1999). Kuller LH: Prevalence and risk factors of carotid plaque in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum
  56. (2010). La Cava A: Pro-infl ammatory high-density lipoproteins and atherosclerosis are induced in lupus-prone mice by a high-fat diet and leptin. Lupus
  57. (2010). Lam CS: Metabolic syndrome, endothelial injury, and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  58. (2006). Lupus Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (LAPS): a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial of atorvastatin versus placebo. Arthritis Rheum
  59. (2000). Maranho RC: Chylomicron metabolism is markedly altered in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum
  60. (2010). MF: Markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress in systemic lupus erythematosus: correlation with disease activity. Arthritis Rheum
  61. (2004). MJ: Endothelial cell apoptosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a common pathway for abnormal vascular function and thrombosis propensity. Blood
  62. (2007). MJ: Interferon-alpha promotes abnormal vasculogenesis in lupus: a pathway for premature atherosclerosis. Blood
  63. (2010). MJ: Lupus-prone New Zealand Black/New Zealand White F1 mice display endothelial dysfunction and abnormal phenotype and function of endothelial progenitor cells. Lupus
  64. (2009). MJ: Type I Interferon signatures are associated with vascular risk and atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum
  65. (1993). Mouse model of arterial injury. Circ Res
  66. (2007). Mycophenolate mofetil and atherosclerosis: results of animal and human studies.
  67. (2009). Niewold TB: Cutting edge: autoimmune disease risk variant of STAT4 confers increased sensitivity to IFN-alpha in lupus patients in vivo.
  68. (2010). Noncalcifi ed coronary plaque in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  69. (2010). Nossent JC: Levels of transforming growth factor-β are low in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with active disease.
  70. (2003). Number and adhesive properties of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with in-stent restenosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol
  71. (2001). Number and migratory activity of circulating endothelial progenitor cells inversely correlate with risk factors for coronary artery disease. Circ Res
  72. (1976). Ogryzlo MA: The bimodal mortality pattern of systemic lupus erythematosus.
  73. (2010). Papo T: Asymptomatic myocardial ischemic disease in antiphospholipid syndrome: a controlled cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study. Arthritis Rheum
  74. (2009). Pathogenic role of anti-endothelial cell antibodies in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Lupus
  75. (2009). Pengo V: Patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and without associated vascular risk factors present a normal endothelial function. Thromb Res
  76. (2010). Premature aortic atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a controlled transesophageal echocardiographic study.
  77. (2009). Premature senescence of highly proliferative endothelial progenitor cells is induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha via the p38 mitogenactivated protein kinase pathway.
  78. (2009). Regulatory T cells and the control of modifi ed lipoprotein autoimmunity-driven atherosclerosis. Trends Cardiovasc Med
  79. (2005). Role of antiheat shock protein 60 autoantibodies in atherosclerosis. Lupus
  80. (2001). S: Vascular stiff ness in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Hypertension
  81. (2007). Sato EI: Atorvastatin therapy improves endothelial-dependent vasodilation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: an 8 weeks controlled trial. Rheumatology
  82. (2007). Segal MS: Type I interferon as a novel risk factor for endothelial progenitor cell depletion and endothelial dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum
  83. (2001). Senécal JL: Traditional Framingham risk factors fail to fully account for accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum
  84. (1999). Shoenfeld Y: Immunolocalization of beta2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H) to human atherosclerotic plaques: potential implications for lesion progression. Circulation
  85. (2006). Simvastatin treatment ameliorates autoimmune disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis in a murine lupus model.
  86. (2010). Stauff er BL, DeSouza CA: Endothelial progenitor cell function, apoptosis, and telomere length in overweight/obese humans. Obesity
  87. (2010). Stroes ES: Mycophenolate mofetil attenuates plaque infl ammation in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Atherosclerosis
  88. (2000). Tedgui A: Elevated levels of shed membrane microparticles with procoagulant potential in the peripheral circulating blood of patients with acute coronary syndromes. Circulation
  89. (2009). Tedgui A: Endothelial microparticles in diseases. Cell Tissue Res
  90. (2009). Th17 and natural Treg cell population dynamics in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum
  91. (2010). The detrimental eff ects of IFN-{alpha} on vasculogenesis in lupus are mediated by repression of IL-1 pathways: potential role in atherogenesis and renal vascular rarefaction.
  92. (2010). The detrimental eff ects of IFN-α on vasculogenesis in lupus are mediated by repression of IL-1 pathways: potential role in atherogenesis and renal vascular rarefaction.
  93. (2010). The role of endothelial progenitor cells in vascular repair after arterial injury and atherosclerotic plaque development. Cardiovasc Ther
  94. (2006). The role of invariant natural killer T in lupus and atherogenesis. Immunol Res
  95. (2010). Treg and lupus. Ann Rheumatic Dis
  96. (2009). Tsokos GC, Tsuboi N: Mechanisms of immune complexmediated neutrophil recruitment and tissue injury. Circulation
  97. (2003). TW: Interferon-inducible gene expression signature in peripheral blood cells of patients with severe lupus.
  98. (2009). Urowitz MB: Variability and correlates of high sensitivity C-reactive protein in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus
  99. (2005). Y: Atherosclerosis-related markers in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: the role of humoral immunity in enhanced atherogenesis. Lupus
  100. (2001). Zeiher AM: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) increase endothelial progenitor cells via the PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway.
  101. (2005). Zeiher AM: Reduced number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells predicts future cardiovascular events: proof of concept for the clinical importance of endogenous vascular repair. Circulation