Article thumbnail

Emotion Effects on Timing: Attention versus Pacemaker Accounts

By Ming Ann Lui, Trevor B. Penney and Annett Schirmer

Abstract

Emotions change our perception of time. In the past, this has been attributed primarily to emotions speeding up an “internal clock” thereby increasing subjective time estimates. Here we probed this account using an S1/S2 temporal discrimination paradigm. Participants were presented with a stimulus (S1) followed by a brief delay and then a second stimulus (S2) and indicated whether S2 was shorter or longer in duration than S1. We manipulated participants' emotions by presenting a task-irrelevant picture following S1 and preceding S2. Participants were more likely to judge S2 as shorter than S1 when the intervening picture was emotional as compared to neutral. This effect held independent of S1 and S2 modality (Visual: Exps. 1, 2, & 3; Auditory: Exp. 4) and intervening picture valence (Negative: Exps. 1, 2 & 4; Positive: Exp. 3). Moreover, it was replicated in a temporal reproduction paradigm (Exp. 5) where a timing stimulus was preceded by an emotional or neutral picture and participants were asked to reproduce the duration of the timing stimulus. Taken together, these findings indicate that emotional experiences may decrease temporal estimates and thus raise questions about the suitability of internal clock speed explanations of emotion effects on timing. Moreover, they highlight attentional mechanisms as a viable alternative

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: Public Library of Science
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3140483
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1999). A watched pot: How we experience time.
  2. (2002). Activation of the supplementary motor area and of attentional networks during temporal processing.
  3. (2005). Affective influences on the attentional dynamics supporting awareness.
  4. (2007). Amygdala inactivation reverses fear’s ability to impair divided attention and make time stand still.
  5. (2007). Anger and time perception in children.
  6. (1998). Arousal-mediated memory consolidation: role of the medial temporal lobe in humans.
  7. (1980). Attention and the detection of signals.
  8. (1984). Attentional bias between modalities: Effects on the internal clock, memory, and decision stages used in animal time discrimination.
  9. (2002). Attentional bias for threat: evidence for delayed disengagement from emotional faces.
  10. (1995). Attentional shifts to emotionally charged cues: behavioral and ERP data.
  11. (2006). Beyond the right hemisphere: Brain mechanisms mediating vocal emotional processing.
  12. (2001). Biran A
  13. (2008). Cardiovascular indicators of disgust.
  14. (1975). Cognitive processing and time perception.
  15. (1994). Controlled attention sharing influences time estimation.
  16. (2008). Cortico-striatal representation of time in animals and humans.
  17. (2009). Cross-modal emotional attention: emotional voices modulate early stages of visual processing.
  18. (1998). Crossmodal attention.
  19. (2001). Crossmodal links in endogenous and exogenous spatial attention: Evidence from event-related brain potential studies.
  20. (2000). Differential effects of auditory and visual signals on clock speed and temporal memory.
  21. (2001). Effects of transient, mild mood states on semantic memory organization and use: an event-related potential investigation in humans.
  22. (2006). Embodied temporal perception of emotion.
  23. (2001). Emotion and motivation I: defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing.
  24. (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain.
  25. (2001). Emotion drives attention: Detecting the snake in the grass.
  26. (2009). Emotional faces in neutral crowds: Detecting displays of anger, happiness, and sadness on schematic and photographic images of faces.
  27. (2010). Emotional MMN: Anxiety and heart rate correlate with the ERP signature for auditory change detection.
  28. (1957). Emotionality and the Yerkes-Dodson Law.
  29. (2005). Erlenmeyer-Kimling L
  30. (1987). From detection to identification: response to multiple targets in rapid serial visual presentation.
  31. (2004). Functional anatomy of the attentional modulation of time estimation.
  32. (2007). How emotional auditory stimuli modulate time perception.
  33. (2007). How emotions colour our perception of time.
  34. (2009). How liked and disliked foods affect time perception.
  35. (2004). Human emotion and memory: Interactions of the amygdala and hippocampal complex.
  36. (1995). Impaired fear conditioning following unilateral temporal lobectomy in humans.
  37. (2005). International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual.
  38. (1997). Memory for emotional words following unilateral temporal lobectomy.
  39. (2005). Neural network involved in time perception: an fMRI study comparing long and short interval estimation.
  40. (2002). Neural response to emotional faces with and without awareness: event-related fMRI in a parietal patient with visual extinction and spatial neglect.
  41. (1993). On the automatic nature of phobic fear: Conditioned electrodermal responses to masked fear-relevant stimuli.
  42. (1996). Partial disruption of fear conditioning in rats with unilateral amygdala damage: correspondence with unilateral temporal lobectomy in humans.
  43. (2004). Perception of the duration of emotional events.
  44. (1988). Reconceptualizing arousal: psychological states in motor performance. Psychol Bull 103: 345–366. Emotion Effects on Timing PLoS
  45. (2009). Relative time sharing: New findings and an extension of the resource allocation model of temporal processing.
  46. (2002). Rethinking feelings: an fMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion.
  47. (1977). Scalar expectancy theory and Weber’s law in animal timing.
  48. (1984). Scalar timing in memory.
  49. (2005). Sex differences in the preattentive processing of vocal emotional expressions.
  50. (1999). Speeding up and (…relatively…) slowing down an internal clock in humans.
  51. (1998). Switching or gating? The attentional challenge in cognitive models of psychological time.
  52. (1997). Temporal Cognition.
  53. (1992). Temporary suppression of visual processing in an RSVP task: an attentional blink?
  54. (1995). The amygdala & emotional memory.
  55. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory.
  56. (1997). The influence of affective factors on time perception.
  57. (1983). The influence of task difficulty and external tempo on subjective time estimation.
  58. (1954). The limbic system and its hippocampal formation.
  59. (1994). The origins of neuroscience.
  60. (2003). The structure of time.
  61. (2005). The voices of wrath: brain responses to angry prosody in meaningless speech.
  62. (2004). Timing speech: A review of lesion and neuroimaging findings.
  63. (2008). When vocal processing gets emotional: On the role of social orientation in relevance detection by the human amygdala.