Article thumbnail

The Relation between Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome and Altered Renal Haemodynamic and Excretory Function in the Rat

By Mohammed H. Abdulla, Munavvar A. Sattar and Edward J. Johns


This paper explores the possible relationships between dietary fructose and altered neurohumoral regulation of renal haemodynamic and excretory function in this model of metabolic syndrome. Fructose consumption induces hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. The pathogenesis of fructose-induced hypertension is dubious and involves numerous pathways acting both singly and together. In addition, hyperinsulinemia and hypertension contribute significantly to progressive renal disease in fructose-fed rats. Moreover, increased activity of the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems leading to downregulation of receptors may be responsible for the blunted vascular sensitivity to angiotensin II and catecholamines, respectively. Various approaches have been suggested to prevent the development of fructose-induced hypertension and/or metabolic alteration. In this paper, we address the role played by the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems in the haemodynamic alterations that occur due to prolonged consumption of fructose

Topics: Review Article
Publisher: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles


  1. (2004). A .W .M i l l e r ,C .D .T u l b e r t ,a n dD .W .B u s i j a ,“ R o s u v a s t a t i n treatment reverses impaired coronary artery vasodilation in fructose-fed, insulin-resistant rats,”
  2. (1999). A .W .M i l l e r ,P .V .G .K a t a k a m ,a n dM .R .U j h e l y i ,“ I m p a i r e d endothelium-mediated relaxation in coronary arteries from insulin-resistant rats,”
  3. (2006). A 4-wk high-fructose diet alters lipid metabolism without affecting insulin sensitivity or ectopic lipids in healthy humans,”
  4. (2006). A causal role for uric acid in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome,”
  5. (1983). a l l f r i s c h ,K .C .E l l w o o d ,a n dO .E .M i c h a e l i sI V ,“ E ffects ofdietaryfructoseonplasmaglucoseandhormoneresponses in normal and hyperinsulinemic men,”
  6. (1989). A n d e r s o n ,L .J .S t o r y ,N .C .Z e t t w o c h ,N .J .G u s t a f s o n
  7. (1999). Abnormal biopterin metabolism is a major cause of impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation through nitric oxide/O2-imbalance in insulin- resistant rat aorta,”
  8. (1992). Abnormal sympathetic overactivity evoked by insulin in the skeletal muscle of patients with essential hypertension,”
  9. (1991). Abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with hypertension. Relationship to obesity,”
  10. (2001). Activation of Na+/H+ exchanger is associated with hyperinsulinemia in borderline hypertensive rats,”
  11. (1999). Acute vasoconstriction-induced insulin resistance in rat muscle in vivo,”
  12. (1986). Alterations in the baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate in streptozotocin diabetic rats,”
  13. (1997). Amelioration of insulin resistance and hypertension in a fructose-fed rat model with fish oil supplementation,”
  14. (1996). and M.N.Goodman,“Effectsofdietarycarbohydratesonglucose and lipid metabolism in golden Syrian hamsters,”
  15. (1984). Angiotensin II attenuates baroreflexcontrolofheartrateandsympatheticactivity,”The
  16. (1989). Antihypertensive effect of insulin reduction in diabetichypertensivepatients,”AmericanJournalofHypertension,vol.
  17. (1994). Antihypertensive effects of metformin in fructose-fed hyperinsulinemic, hypertensive rats,”
  18. (2002). Antihypertensive treatment with enrasentan (SB217242) in an animal model of hypertension and hyperinsulinemia,”
  19. (2009). Apocynin improves endothelial function and prevents the development of hypertension in fructose fed rat,”
  20. (1994). Arterial alphaadrenergic responsiveness is decreased and SNS activity is increased in older humans,”
  21. (1988). Attenuation of fructose-induced hypertension in rats by exercise training,”
  22. (1997). B.C.KoneandC.Baylis,“Biosynthesisandhomeostaticroles of nitric oxide in the normal kidney,”
  23. (1986). Baroreflex control of plasma norepinephrine and heart period in health subjects and diabetic patients,”
  24. (1995). Baroreflex function in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats,”
  25. (1997). Baroreflex sensitivity in drug-treated systemic hypertension,”
  26. (2008). Bautista-Garc´ ıa et al., “Effects of febuxostat on metabolic and renal alterations in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome,”
  27. (1996). Cardiac output and renal function during insulin hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats,”
  28. (2001). Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome,”
  29. (2003). Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistanceinratswithfructose-inducedhypertension,”American
  30. (1993). Chemical sympathectomy attenuates hyperinsulinemia-induced hypertension in consciousrats,”Nutrition,Metabolism&CardiovascularDiseases,
  31. (2009). Chronic etanercept treatment prevents the development of hypertension infructose-fedrats,”MolecularandCellularBiochemistry,vol.
  32. Chronic hyperinsulinemia enhances adrenergic vasoconstriction and decreases calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerve-mediated vasodilation in pithed rats,”Hypertension Research,vol.29,no.5,pp.361–368,2006.
  33. (1994). Chronic insulin administration elevates blood pressure in rats,”
  34. (2005). Chronic N-acetylcysteine prevents fructose-induced insulin resistance andInternational
  35. (2001). Chronic thromboxane synthase inhibition prevents fructose-induced hypertension,”
  36. (2003). Chronological changes of α-adrenoceptor-mediated vascular constriction in Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima fatty rats,”
  37. (1996). Contribution of nitric oxide to the beneficial effects of enalapril in the fructose-induced hyperinsulinemic rat,”
  38. (1990). Daffo n c h i o ,F .A l b e r g a t i ,P .B e r t o l i ,a n d
  39. (1989). Day-long glucose, insulin, and fructose responses of hyperinsulinemic and nonhyperinsulinemic men adapted to diets containing either fructose or high-amylose cornstarch,”
  40. (2002). Decrease in renal medullary endothelial nitric oxide synthase of fructose-fed, salt-sensitive hypertensive rats,”
  41. (1996). Defective endothelium-dependent relaxation in fructose-hypertensive rats,”AmericanJournalofHypertension,vol.9,no.4,pp.370– 376,
  42. (2000). Description of the long-term lipogenic effects of dietary carbohydrates in male Fischer 344 rats,”
  43. Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy: prognosis, diagnosis and treatment,” Diabetes/Metabolism Reviews,
  44. (1999). Dietary fructose but not starch is responsible for hyperlipidemia associated with copper deficiency in rats: effect of high-fat diet,”
  45. (2010). Dietary fructose causes tubulointerstitial injury in the normal rat kidney,”
  46. (2008). Dietary fructose during the suckling period increases body weight and fatty acid uptake into skeletal muscle in adult rats,”
  47. (2005). Dietary fructose: implications for dysregulation of energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism,”
  48. (1982). Differential effects of sucrose, fructose and glucose on carbohydrate-induced obesityinrats,”JournalofNutrition,vol.112,no.8,pp.1546– 1554,
  49. (2005). Differential regulation of insulin resistance and hypertension by sex hormones in fructose-fed male rats,”
  50. (2000). Dysfunctional renal nitric oxide synthase as a determinant of salt- sensitive hypertension:mechanismsofrenalarteryendothelialdysfunctionand role of endothelin for vascular hypertrophy and glomerulosclerosis,”JournaloftheAmericanSocietyofNephrology,vol.
  51. (2002). Effe c to fT N F - α-converting enzyme inhibitor on insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats,”
  52. (1999). Effect of acute saline volume loading on renal sympathetic nerve activity in anaesthetised fructose-fed and fat-fed rats,”
  53. (1995). Effect of chronic endothelin blockade in hyperinsulinemic hypertensive rats,”
  54. (1994). Effect of chronic losartan potassiumtreatmentonfructose-inducedhypertension,”Life Sciences,
  55. (1990). Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight,”
  56. (1989). Effect of fructose-induced hypertension on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and atrial natriuretic factor,”
  57. (1980). Effect of fructosefeedingoninsulinsecretionandinsulinactioninthe rat,”
  58. (2008). Effect of genistein, a soy isof lavone, on whole body insulin sensitivity and renal damage induced by a high-fructose diet,” Renal Failure,
  59. (1968). Effect of glucose and fructose administration on lipid metabolism in the rat,”
  60. (2004). Effect of hyperuricemia upon endothelial function in patients at increased cardiovascular risk,”
  61. (1981). Effect of insulin andglucoseinfusionsonsympatheticnervoussystemactivity in normal man,”
  62. (2005). Effect of taurine on biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissues of fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats,”
  63. (2008). Effect of telmisartan, angiotensin II receptor antagonist, on metabolic profile in fructose-induced hypertensive, hyperinsulinemic, hyperlipidemic rats,”
  64. (2001). Effects of cilnidipine on muscle fiber composition, capillary density and muscle blood flow in fructose-fed rats,”
  65. (1985). Effects of fructose feeding on lipid parameters in obese and lean, diabetic and nondiabetic Zucker rats,”
  66. (1988). Effects of insulin on vasoconstrictive responses to norepinephrine and angiotensin II in rabbit femoral artery and vein,”
  67. (1987). Effects of intravenous infusions of vasopressin and angiotensin II on central and peripheral noradrenergic functioninconsciousrabbits,”CanadianJournalofPhysiologyand Pharmacology,
  68. (2001). Effects of troglitazone and temocapril in spontaneously hypertensive rats with chronic renal failure,”
  69. (2007). Elevated leptin: consequence or cause of obesity?”
  70. (2000). Elevated sympathetic activity contributes to hypertension and salt sensitivity
  71. (1998). Endothelial dysfunction precedes hypertension in14
  72. (2000). eNOS mediates Larginine-induced inhibition of thick ascending limb chloride flux,”
  73. (1996). Evaluation of hemodynamics, vascular reactivity and baroreceptor compensation in the insulin resistant
  74. (2004). Evidence for a causal role of the reninangiotensin system in vascular dysfunction associated with insulin resistance,”
  75. (2002). Excess dietary glucose alters renal function before increasing arterial pressure and inducing insulin resistance,”
  76. (1991). Exogenous insulin augments in healthy volunteers the cardiovascular reactivity tonoradrenalinebutnottoangiotensinII,”JournalofClinical Investigation,
  77. (1997). Experimental benefit of moxonidine on glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in the fructose-fed rat,”
  78. (2007). Farr´ e et al., “Impairment of hepatic STAT-3 activation and reduction of PPARα activity in fructose-fed rats,”
  79. (2005). Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity,”
  80. (2008). Felodipine attenuates vascular inflammation in a fructose-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome via the inhibition of NF-κB activation,”
  81. (2003). Fructose diet and VEGF-induced plasma extravasation in hamster cheek pouch,”
  82. (1996). Fructose feeding in rats is not associated with sodium retention,”
  83. (2005). Fructose feeding increases insulin resistance but not blood pressure
  84. (2006). Fructose-fed rat hearts are protected against ischemiareperfusion injury,”
  85. (1995). Fructose-induced hypertension in rats is concentration- and duration-dependent,”
  86. (2008). Fructose-induced hypertension: essential role of chloride and fructose absorbing transporters
  87. (1989). Fructose-induced in vivo insulin resistance and elevated plasma triglyceride levels in rats,”
  88. (2008). Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbatesweightgaininresponsetosubsequenthigh-fatfeeding,”
  89. (2007). Fructose-mediated stress signaling in the liver: implications for hepatic insulin resistance,”
  90. (2007). Fructose, but not dextrose, accelerates the progression of chronic kidney disease,”
  91. (2007). Fructoseinduced hypertension in Wistar-Kyoto rats: interaction with moderately high dietary salt,”
  92. (2007). Fructoseinduced metabolic syndrome is associated with glomerular hypertension and renal microvascular damage in rats,”
  93. Functional subtypes of renal α1-adrenoceptor in diabetic and non-diabetic
  94. (1998). G.Grassi,“Roleofthesympatheticnervoussysteminhuman hypertension,”
  95. (2003). Gene therapy with human tissue kallikrein reduces hypertension and hyperinsulinemia in fructose-induced hypertensive rats,”
  96. (2008). Gueux et al., “Inulin supplementation prevents high fructose diet-induced hypertensioninrats,”ClinicalNutrition,vol.27,no.2,pp.276–282,
  97. (2010). Gum Guar fiber associatedwithfructosereducesserumtriacylglycerolbutdid not improve the glucose tolerance
  98. (2002). H a n s o n ,G .I m p e r a t o r
  99. (1987). H w a n g,H .H o ,B .B .H o ffm a n ,a n dG .M .R e a v e n ,“ F ru c -tose-induced insulin resistance and hypertension in rats,”
  100. (2006). H.Vasudevan,P.R.Nagareddy,andJ.H.McNeill,“Gonadectomy prevents endothelial dysfunction in fructose-fed male rats, a factor contributing to the development of hypertension,”
  101. (1998). Heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive subjects with and without metabolic features of insulin resistance syndrome,”
  102. (2005). Hepatic adaptations to sucrose and fructose,”
  103. (2006). High fructose consumption combined with low dietary magnesium intake may increase the incidence of the metabolic syndrome by inducing inflammation,”
  104. (2007). High fructose diet increases mortality in hypertensive rats compared to a complex carbohydrate or high fat diet,”
  105. (1994). High-fructose diet does not raise 24-hour mena arterial pressure in rats,”
  106. (1994). Highfructose feeding elicits insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, and hypertension in normal mongrel dogs,”
  107. (2004). Hoe 140 abolishes thebloodpressureloweringeffectoftaurineinhighfructosefed rats,”
  108. (1991). Hyperinsulinemia produces both sympathetic neural activation and vasodilation in normal humans,”
  109. (1996). Hypertension and associated metabolic abnormalities—the role of insulin resistance and the sympathoadrenal system,”
  110. (1992). Hypertension during chronic hyperinsulinemia in rats is not salt-sensitive,”
  111. (1998). Hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired endothelium-dependent vascularrelaxationinmicelackinginsulinreceptorsubstrate1,”
  112. (2002). Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for inhibition of glucose production,”
  113. (2000). i g a s h i u r a ,N .U r a ,T .T a k a d ae ta l . ,“ T h ee ffects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and an angiotensin II receptor antagonist on insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats,”
  114. (2004). Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease,cardiovasculardisease,andallcausesinUnitedStates adults,”
  115. (1997). Impaired in vivo adrenergic responses in diet-induced hypertensive rats,”
  116. (2010). Increased CYP2J3 expression reduces insulin resistance in fructose-treated rats and db/db mice,”
  117. (1997). Increasing insulin sensitivity lowers blood pressure in the fructose-fed rat,”
  118. (1995). Inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in rat hindlimb by an α-adrenergic vascular effect,”
  119. (1996). Insulin and hypertension: a causal relationship?”
  120. (1996). Insulin and the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of hypertension,”
  121. (1996). Insulin and the vasculature—old actors, new roles,”
  122. Insulin andglucoseresponsesinratsfedsucroseorstarch,”American JournalofClinicalNutrition,vol.32,no.4,pp.787–793,1979.
  123. (2003). Insulin receptors and renal sodium handling in hypertensive fructose-fed rats,”
  124. (1993). Insulin reduces contraction and intracellular calcium concentration in vascular smooth muscle,”
  125. (1999). Insulin resistance and impaired endothelium-dependent renal vasodilatation in fructose-fed hypertensive rats,”
  126. (1992). Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and coronary artery disease: a complex metabolic web,”
  127. Insulin resistance/compensatory hyperinsulinemia, essential hypertension, and cardiovascular disease,”
  128. (1993). Insulin stimulates Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, and Mg2+ transports in TAL of mouse nephron: crosspotentiation with AVP,”
  129. (1987). Insulin stimulates volume absorption in the rabbit proximal convoluted tubule,”
  130. (1981). Insulin-induced enhancement of uptake of noradrenaline in atrial strips,”
  131. (1993). Intraarterial infusion of insulin attenuates vasoreactivity in human forearm,”
  132. (2005). Involvement of oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase activation in the development of cardiovascular complications in a model of insulin resistance, the fructose-fed rat,” Atherosclerosis,
  133. (2006). K.Lindgren,E.Hagelin,N.Hans´ en,andL.Lind,“Baroreceptor sensitivity is impaired in elderly subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance,”
  134. (1968). Kekom¨ aki, “Liver adenine nucleotides: fructose-induced depletion and its effect on protein synthesis,”
  135. (2009). Ketohexokinasedependent metabolism of fructose Induces proinflammatory mediators in proximal tubular cells,”
  136. (2002). L a k k a ,D .E .L a a k s o n e n ,T .A .L a k k ae ta l . ,“ T h e metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men,”
  137. (2001). Long-term fructose feeding impairs vascular relaxation in rat mesenteric arteries,”
  138. (2001). M.S.Silvaetal.,“Ahigh-fructose dietinducesinsulinresistancebutnotbloodpressurechanges in normotensive rats,”
  139. (2010). Mechanism of impaired baroreflex sensitivity in Wistar rats fed a high-fat and -carbohydrate diet,”
  140. (1995). Mechanisms of insulin action on sympathetic nerve activity,”
  141. (2001). Mechanisms underlying attenuated contractile response of aortic rings to noradrenaline in fructose-fed mice,”
  142. (2000). Metformin improves vascular function in insulin-resistant rats,”
  143. (2006). Modulation of baroreflex sensitivity by walnuts versus cashew nuts in subjects with metabolic syndrome,”
  144. (2000). Monosaccharide-enriched diets cause hyperleptinemia without hypophagia,”
  145. (2000). N .B e z e r r a ,M .U e n o ,M .S .S i l v a ,D .Q .T a v a r e s
  146. (2005). Neuroadrenergic and reflex abnormalities in patients with metabolic syndrome,”
  147. (2001). Nitric oxide dependency of arterial pressure-induced changesinrenalinterstitialhydrostaticpressureindogs,”Circulation
  148. (1996). Nitric oxide mediates skeletal glucose transport,”
  149. (1994). Nitric oxide release accounts for insulin’s vascular effects in humans,”
  150. (2006). Nocturnal hypertension in mice consuming a high fructose diet,”
  151. (1996). Noninvasive assessment of baroreflex control in borderline hypertension: comparison with the phenylephrine method,”
  152. (2004). o n g ,E .A r i k a w a ,D .G a l i p e a u ,M .B a t t e l l ,a n dJ .H . McNeill, “Androgens are necessary for the development of fructose-induced hypertension,”
  153. (2003). o r d a n ,S .A .S i m a n d l e ,C .D .T u l b e r t ,D .W .B u s i j a
  154. (2003). o r e n z o ,M .O k o l o i s e ,K .W i l l i a m s ,M .P .S t e r n ,a n dS
  155. (2007). Obesity augments vasoconstrictor reactivity to angiotensin II in the renal circulation of the Zucker rat,”
  156. (1999). Obesity, hypertension, and sympathetic nervous system activity,”
  157. (2000). Oral administration of tetrahydrobiopterin prevents endothelial dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress in the aortas of insulin-resistant rats,”
  158. (1998). Overexpression of vascular endothelin-1 and endothelin-A receptors in a fructoseinduced hypertensive rat model,”
  159. (1995). Perez-Vizcaino et al., “Effects of losartan on blood pressure, metabolic alterations, and vascular reactivity in the fructose-induced hypertensive rat,”
  160. (2002). Quinapril treatment restores the vasodilator action of insulin
  161. (1997). Reactivity of mesenteric arteries from fructose hypertensive rats to endothelin-1,”
  162. (1993). Regulation of Na+, K+-ATPase gene expression by insulin in vascular smooth muscle cells,”
  163. (1991). Relationship between blood pressure, plasma insulin and triglyceride concentration, and insulinactioninspontaneoushypertensiveandWistar-Kyoto rats,”
  164. (2000). Relationship of baroreflex sensitivity and blood pressure in an older population,”
  165. (1995). Renal hemodynamics and sodium handling in moderate renal insufficiency: the role of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia,”
  166. (2002). Response of liver antioxidant system to taurine in rats fed high fructose diet,”
  167. (2003). Responsiveness of insulin-induced cardiac sympathetic nerve activation associates with blood pressure regulation in diabetics,”
  168. (1998). Rilmenidine normalizes fructoseinduced insulin resistance and hypertension in rats,”
  169. (1993). Role of angiotensin II in high fructose-induced left ventricular hypertrophy
  170. (1997). Role of blood flow in the regulation of muscle glucose uptake,”
  171. (1988). Role of insulin resistance in human disease,”
  172. (2002). Role of nitric oxide in the early renal changes induced by high fructose diet in rats,”
  173. (2006). s u ,a n dL .T .H o ,“ P l a s m al e p t i n responsetooralglucosetoleranceandfasting/re-feedingtests in rats with fructose-induced metabolic derangements,”
  174. (1999). S.Verma,S.Bhanot,andJ.H.McNeill,“Sympathectomyprevents fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia and hypertension,”
  175. (1993). Serotonin-mediated acute insulin resistance in the perfused rat hindlimb but not in incubated muscle: a role for the vascular system,”
  176. (2009). Slc2a5 (Glut5) is essential for the absorption of fructose in the intestine and generation of fructose-induced hypertension,”
  177. Soft drinks, fructose consumption, and the risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study,” BritishMedicalJournal,vol.336,no.7639,pp.309–312,2008.
  178. (1989). Somatostatin inhibition of fructose-induced hypertension,”
  179. (2002). Substituting honey for refined carbohydrates protects rats from hypertriglyceridemic and prooxidative effects of fructose,”
  180. (2007). Substitution of drinking water by fructose solution induces hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in hamsters,”
  181. (1993). Sucrose does not raise blood pressure in rats maintained on a low salt intake,”
  182. (2008). Sugarsweetened soft drinks, diet soft drinks, and serum uric acid level:
  183. (2008). Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results from the national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999-2004,” PLos One,
  184. (2004). Superoxide dismustase mimetic tempol decreases blood pressure by increasing renal medullary blood flow in hyperinsulinemic-hypertensive rats,”
  185. (1991). Sustained hyperinsulinemia increases arterial pressure in conscious rats,”
  186. (2006). Sympathetic overdrive and cardiovascular risk in the metabolic syndrome,”
  187. (2000). Takahara et al., “Regulation of endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase gene expression in endothelial cells and in vivo: a specific vascular action of insulin,”
  188. (2004). Teff,S .S .E l l i o t t ,M .T s c h ¨ op et al., “Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women,”
  189. (2011). The contribution of α(1B)-adrenoceptor subtype in the renal vasculature of fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats,”
  190. (1995). The effect of high fructose intake on renal morphology and renal function in rats,”
  191. (1981). The effect of insulin on renal sodium metabolism. A review with clinical implications,”
  192. (1977). The effect of insulin on vascular reactivity to norepinephrine,” Diabetes,
  193. (1975). The effect of insulinonrenalhandlingofsodium,potassium,calcium,and phosphate in man,”
  194. (2004). The effectofhigh-fatandhigh-fructosedietsonglucosetolerance and plasma lipid and leptin levels
  195. (1992). The effects of fructose feeding on glomerular structure in the rat,” J o u r n a lo ft h eA m e r i c a n
  196. (2007). Thiazide diuretics exacerbate fructose-induced metabolic syndrome,”
  197. Time course of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and oxidative stress in fructose-hypertensive rats: a model related to metabolic syndrome,”Atherosclerosis,vol.214,no.2,pp.310–315,2011.
  198. (1993). Tricottet et al., “Effects of chronic dietary fructose with and without copper supplementation onglycaemiccontrol,adiposity,insulinbindingtoadipocytes and glomerular basement membrane thickness in normal rats,”
  199. (2010). u a n g ,M .A .R .L e z a m a ,J .A .P .O n t i v e r o se ta l . ,“ E ffect of losartan on vascular function in fructose-fed rats: the roleofperivascularadiposetissue,”ClinicalandExperimental Hypertension,
  200. Vagal control of heart period in alloxan diabetic rats,”
  201. (1994). Vanadyl sulfate prevents fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia and hypertension
  202. (1997). Vascular insulin resistance in fructose-hypertensive rats,”
  203. (1983). Vascular reactivity to adrenergic agents and neuronal and vascular catecholamine levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats,”
  204. (1997). Vitamin E improves the free radical defense system potential and insulin sensitivity of rats fed high fructose diets,”
  205. (1994). W a j c h e n b e r g ,D .A .M a l e r b i ,M .S .R o c h a
  206. (2006). Y.H.Dan,K.M.Boini,B.Friedrichetal.,“Bluntedhypertensive effect of combined fructose and high-salt diet in genetargeted mice lacking functional serum- and glucocorticoidinducible kinase SGK1,”