Article thumbnail

A High Protein Diet during Pregnancy Affects Hepatic Gene Expression of Energy Sensing Pathways along Ontogenesis in a Porcine Model

By Michael Oster, Eduard Murani, Cornelia C. Metges, Siriluck Ponsuksili and Klaus Wimmers

Abstract

In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. The underlying programming of fetal development was shown to be associated with an increased risk of degenerative diseases in adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome. There are clues that diet-dependent modifications of the metabolism during fetal life can persist until adulthood. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptomes show short-term and long-term changes depending on the maternal diet. To this end pregnant German landrace gilts were fed either a high protein diet (HP, 30% CP) or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP) throughout pregnancy. Hepatic transcriptome profiles of the offspring were analyzed at prenatal (94 dpc) and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dpn). Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, mRNA expression levels of genes related to energy metabolism, N-metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, lipid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and stress/immune response were affected either in a short-term or in a long-term manner. Gene expression profiles at fetal stage 94 dpc were almost unchanged between the diets. The gestational HP diet affected the hepatic expression profiles at prenatal and postnatal stages. The effects encompassed a modulation of the genome in terms of an altered responsiveness of energy and nutrient sensing pathways. Differential expression of genes related to energy production and nutrient utilization contribute to the maintenance of development and growth performance within physiological norms, however the modulation of these pathways may be accompanied by a predisposition for metabolic disturbances up to adult stages

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: Public Library of Science
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3138750
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1994). A
  2. (2007). Advances in swine biomedical model genomics.
  3. (1997). Altered adipocyte properties in the offspring of protein malnourished rats.
  4. (2007). Amp-activated protein kinase in metabolic control and insulin signaling.
  5. (2010). Annotation and in silico localization of the affymetrix genechip porcine genome array.
  6. (2003). Bird A
  7. (2006). Board-invited review: intrauterine growth retardation: implications for the animal sciences.
  8. (2006). Consequences of birth weight for postnatal growth performance and carcass quality in pigs as related to myogenesis.
  9. (2001). Control of hepatic gluconeogenesis through the transcriptional coactivator pgc-1.
  10. (2005). Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming.
  11. (2004). Developmental plasticity and human health.
  12. (2004). Developmental programming of the metabolic syndrome by maternal nutritional imbalance: how strong is the evidence from experi- mental models in mammals? JPhysiol 561:
  13. (2001). Diabetes in old male offspring of rat dams fed a reduced protein diet.
  14. (2005). Dietary protein restriction of pregnant rats induces and folic acid supplementation prevents epigenetic modification of hepatic gene expression in the offspring. JNutr 135:
  15. (2008). Dire: identifying distant regulatory elements of co-expressed genes.
  16. (1990). E_ect of a low protein diet during pregnancy on the fetal rat endocrine pancreas.
  17. (2003). Early growth restriction leads to down regulation of protein kinase c zeta and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.
  18. (2010). Effect of a high-protein diet on food intake and liver metabolism during pregnancy, lactation and after weaning in mice.
  19. (1989). Effects of changes in maternal energy and protein intake during pregnancy, with special reference to fetal growth. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
  20. (2009). Effects of growth hormone on glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism in human subjects.
  21. (2002). Effects of low-intensity prolonged exercise on pgc-1 mrna expression in rat epitrochlearis muscle.
  22. (1993). Efstratiadis A
  23. (2010). Energetics, epigenetics, mitochondrial genetics.
  24. (2009). Epigenetics - potential contribution to fetal programming.
  25. (1997). Factors inuencing the structure and function of the small intestine in the weaned pig: a review.
  26. (2010). Fetal programming: link between early nutrition, dna methylation, and complex diseases.
  27. (2006). Forhead A
  28. (2009). Gene and protein expression profiles in the foetal liver of the pregnant rat fed a low protein diet.
  29. (2007). Higher maternal dietary protein intake in late pregnancy is associated with a lower infant ponderal index at birth.
  30. (2010). How increased oxidative stress promotes longevity and metabolic health: The concept of mitochondrial hormesis (mitohormesis). Exp Gerontol 45(6): 410–8. Nutritional Programming in a Porcine Model PLoS
  31. (1993). Igf-i is required for normal embryonic growth in mice.
  32. (2003). Insulin/igf-i-signaling pathway: an evolu- tionarily conserved mechanism of longevity from yeast to humans.
  33. (1986). Insulinlike growth factor i receptor primary structure: comparison with insulin receptor suggests structural determinants that define functional specificity.
  34. (2008). Intrauterine growth retardation in livestock: Implications, mechanisms and solutions.
  35. (2003). Isocaloric maternal low-protein diet alters igf-i, igfbps, and hepatocyte proliferation in the fetal rat.
  36. (2011). Limited and excess protein intake of pregnant gilts differently affects body composition and cellularity of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of newborn and weanling piglets. Eur J Nutr. [Epub ahead of print].
  37. (2008). Long-term effects of low and high protein feeding to pregnant sows on offspring at market weight. In:
  38. (2011). Low and excess dietary protein levels during gestation affect growth and compositional traits in gilts and impair offspring fetal growth.
  39. (2010). Mammalian target of rapamycin (mtor): conducting the cellular signaling symphony.
  40. (2009). Maternal low-protein diet alters pancreatic islet mitochondrial function in a sex-specific manner in the adult rat.
  41. (2005). Maternal protein restriction leads to hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulinsignaling protein expression in 21-mo-old female rat offspring.
  42. (2010). Maternal protein restriction with or without folic acid supplementation during pregnancy alters the hepatic transcriptome in adult male rats.
  43. (2001). Mitochondria in apoptosis and human disease.
  44. (2003). Myeloid differentiation (myd) primary response genes in hematopoiesis.
  45. (2007). Non-human primate fetal kidney transcriptome analysis indicates mammalian target of rapamycin (mtor) is a central nutrient-responsive pathway. JPhysiol 579:
  46. (2010). Nutritional programming of gastrointestinal tract development. is the pig a good model for man?
  47. (1996). Organ-selective growth in the offspring of proteinrestricted mothers.
  48. (2010). Prenatal exposure to maternal low or high protein diets induces modest changes in the adipose tissue proteome of newborn piglets.
  49. (2002). Prenatal high protein exposure decreases energy expenditure and increases adiposity in young rats. JNutr 132:
  50. (2006). Ribosomal protein s6 phosphorylation: from protein synthesis to cell size.
  51. (1994). Role of the amp-activated protein kinase in the cellular stress response.
  52. (2007). Spatial control of mitosis by the gtpase ran.
  53. (2003). Statistical significance for genomewide studies.
  54. (2006). Suppression of reactive oxygen species and neurodegeneration by the pgc-1 transcriptional coactivators.
  55. (2002). The anti-diabetic drugs rosiglitazone and metformin stimulate amp-activated protein kinase through distinct signaling pathways.
  56. (1986). The effect on birthweight of a high-protein, low carbohydrate diet during pregnancy.
  57. (2010). The ingenuity pathway analysis website, accessed
  58. (2001). The maternal diet during pregnancy programs altered expression of the glucocorticoid receptor and type 2 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: potential molecular mechanisms underlying the programming of hypertension in utero.
  59. (2003). The maternal endocrine environment in the low-protein model of intra-uterine growth restriction.
  60. (2002). The mitochondrial dna polymerase as a target of oxidative damage.
  61. (2010). The r-project website, accessed
  62. (2002). The ran gtpase as a marker of chromosome position in spindle formation and nuclear envelope assembly.
  63. (2009). The timing of ‘‘catch-up growth’’ affects metabolism and appetite regulation in male rats born with intrauterine growth restriction.
  64. (2008). Time course of high-fat dietinduced reductions in adipose tissue mitochondrial proteins: potential mechanisms and the relationship to glucose intolerance.
  65. (2003). Tor signalling in bugs, brain and brawn.
  66. (2003). Tsc2 mediates cellular energy response to control cell growth and survival.
  67. (1992). Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis.
  68. (2004). Why do cancers have high aerobic glycolysis?