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Arginase and Arginine Dysregulation in Asthma

By Renée C. Benson, Karen A. Hardy and Claudia R. Morris

Abstract

In recent years, evidence has accumulated indicating that the enzyme arginase, which converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders such as asthma through dysregulation of L-arginine metabolism and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis. Allergic asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. Through substrate competition, arginase decreases bioavailability of L-arginine for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), thereby limiting NO production with subsequent effects on airway tone and inflammation. By decreasing L-arginine bioavailability, arginase may also contribute to the uncoupling of NOS and the formation of the proinflammatory oxidant peroxynitrite in the airways. Finally, arginase may play a role in the development of chronic airway remodeling through formation of L-ornithine with downstream production of polyamines and L-proline, which are involved in processes of cellular proliferation and collagen deposition. Further research on modulation of arginase activity and L-arginine bioavailability may reveal promising novel therapeutic strategies for asthma

Topics: Review Article
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3124954
Provided by: PubMed Central

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