Article thumbnail

High-energy ball milling technique for ZnO nanoparticles as antibacterial material

By Numan Salah, Sami S Habib, Zishan H Khan, Adnan Memic, Ameer Azam, Esam Alarfaj, Nabeel Zahed and Salim Al-Hamedi

Abstract

Nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) are increasingly recognized for their utility in biological applications. In this study, the high-energy ball milling (HEBM) technique was used to produce nanoparticles of ZnO from its microcrystalline powder. Four samples were ball milled for 2, 10, 20, and 50 hours, respectively. The structural and optical modifications induced in the ‘as synthesized’ nanomaterials were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and photoluminescence emission spectra (PL). SEM and TEM results show a gradual decrease in particle size from around 600 to ∼30 nm, with increased milling time. The initial microstructures had random shapes, while the final shape became quite spherical. XRD analysis showed ZnO in a hexagonal structure, broadening in the diffracted peaks and going from larger to smaller particles along with a relaxation in the lattice constant c. The value of c was found to increase from 5.204 to 5.217 Å with a decrease in particle size (600 to ∼30 nm). PL result showed a new band at around 365 nm, whose intensity is found to increase as the particles size decreases. These remarkable structural and optical modifications induced in ZnO nanoparticles might prove useful for various applications. The increase in c value is an important factor for increasing the antibacterial effects of ZnO, suggesting that the HEBM technique is quite suitable for producing these nanoparticles for this purpose

Topics: Original Research
Publisher: Dove Medical Press
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3124392
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. A strategy for ZnO nanorod mediated multi-mode cancer treatment.
  2. Change in antibacterial characteristics with doping amount of ZnO in MgO–ZnO solid solution.
  3. Changes of structure and optical energy gap induced by oxygen pressure during the deposition of ZnO films.
  4. (2008). Coating of ZnO nanorods with nanosized silver particles by electroless plating process. Mater Lett.
  5. Dual drug loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy.
  6. (2004). Effect of lattice constant of zinc oxide on antibacterial characteristics.
  7. (2009). Effects of flower-like ZnO nanowhiskers on the mechanical, thermal and antibacterial properties of waterborne polyurethane. Polym Degrad Stabil.
  8. Efficient production of ZnO nanowires by a ball milling and annealing method.
  9. FeCo/graphitic shell nanocrystals as advanced magnetic-resonance-imaging and near infrared agents.
  10. Fenollosa Hernandez MA. Nanoparticles of ZnO obtained by mechanical milling.
  11. (1995). Formation of metal hydrides by mechanical alloying.
  12. Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor. Sensor Actuat B-Chem.
  13. (1998). Intermetallic matrix composites prepared by mechanical alloying – a review. Mater Sci Eng A Struct Mater.
  14. (1999). Investigation of combustion reactions under different milling conditions. Mater Sci Forum.
  15. (1997). Mechanically activated carbothermic reduction of ilmenite. Metall Mater Trans A.
  16. Mechanically enhanced carbothermic synthesis of iron-TiN composite.
  17. Mechanisms behind green photoluminescence in ZnO phosphor powders.
  18. Mixture of fuels approach for the solution combustion synthesis of Al2O3–ZrO2 nanocomposite.
  19. Nanocrystalline Al Al2O3p and SiCp composites produced by high-energy ball milling.
  20. (1999). Nanoporous carbon produced by ball milling. Appl Phys Lett.
  21. (1994). Nitriding reactions of Ti–Al system induced by ball milling in ammonia gas. Mater Sci Eng A Struct Mater.
  22. (2006). One-dimensional nanomaterials synthesized using high-energy ball milling and annealing process. Sci Technol Adva Mater.
  23. (2005). Optical properties and luminescence of metallic nanoclusters in ZnO:Cu. Physica B.
  24. (2007). Photoluminescence and Raman scattering of Cu-doped ZnO films prepared by magnetron sputtering. Appl Surf Sci.
  25. (2002). Preparation of ZnO-glass varistor from tetrapod ZnO nanopowders. Mater Sci Eng B.
  26. (2009). Raoufi Taha. The effect of heat treatment on the physical properties of sol gel derived ZnO thin films. Appl Surf Sci.
  27. (2008). Reactive ball milling to produce nanocrystalline ZnO. Mater Lett.
  28. (2010). Selective toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward Gram-positive bacteria and cancer cells by apoptosis through lipid peroxidation. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine. (In press,
  29. (1998). Sol-gel-derived c-axis oriented ZnO thin films. Thin Solid Films.
  30. (2008). Sol–gel derived zinc oxide buffer layer for use in random laser media. Mater Lett.
  31. Stable field emission from rose-like zinc oxide nanostructures synthesized through a hydrothermal route. Mater Lett.
  32. (2006). Structural and photoluminescent properties of ZnO hexagonal nanoprisms synthesized by microemulsion with polyvinyl pyrrolidone served as surfactant and passivant. Chem Phys Lett.
  33. Synthesis of radial ZnO nanostructures by a simple thermal evaporation method.
  34. (2008). Synthesis of vertically aligned Al-doped ZnO nanorods array with controllable Al concentration. Mater Lett.
  35. The effect of source temperature on morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanowires grown using a modified thermal evaporation set-up.
  36. (2000). The lattice relaxation of ZnO single crystal (0001) surface. Surf Sci.
  37. The relationship between the nanostructure of titanium surfaces and bacterial attachment.
  38. Trivalent dopants on ZnO semiconductor obtained by mechanical milling.
  39. (2006). X-ray studies on optical and structural properties of ZnO nanostructured thin films. Superlattice Microst.
  40. (2003). Zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporated in ultrathin layer silicate films and their photocatalytic properties. Colloids Surfaces A.
  41. Zinc oxide nanotetrapods.
  42. ZnMgO nanorod arrays grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition.
  43. ZnO nanomaterials synthesized from thermal evaporation of ball-milled ZnO powders.
  44. (2008). ZnO thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition and rf sputtering as an active layer for thin film transistor. Thin Solid Films.