Deregulated IL-12 and IL-23 production from activated myeloid lineage cells is a key driver of numerous T cell-dependent autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. IL-12 and IL-23 share a common p40 subunit encoded by Il12b, which is negatively regulated at the transcriptional level by the STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3)-activating anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. We found that IL-10 targets an enhancer 10 kb upstream of the Il12b transcriptional start site. Within the enhancer, a single 10-bp site is required for the inhibitory effects of IL-10 and is bound by NFIL3 (nuclear factor, interleukin 3-regulated), a B-ZIP transcription factor. Myeloid cells lacking NFIL3 produce excessive IL-12p40 and increased IL-12p70. Thus, the STAT3-dependent expression of NFIL3 is a key component of a negative feedback pathway in myeloid cells that suppresses proinflammatory responses
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