Article thumbnail

Phosphorylation of SMC1 by ATR is required for desferrioxamine (DFO)-induced apoptosis

By E Y So, M Ausman, T Saeki and T Ouchi


DNA damage signaling pathways are initiated in response to chemical reagents and radiation damage, as well as in response to hypoxia. It is implicated that structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 (SMC1) is not only a component of the cohesion complex but also facilitates the activation of DNA damage checkpoint proteins. Here, we studied the mechanism of DNA damage checkpoint activated by ATR–SMC1 pathway when cells are treated with desferrioxamine (DFO), a hypoxia-mimetic reagent. We show that DFO treatment induces phosphorylation of SMC1 at Ser966, NBS1 at Ser343, Chk1 at Ser317, Chk2 at Thr68, and p53 at Ser15. Among these sites, phosphorylation of SMC1, NBS1, and Chk1 by DFO are mediated by ATR as it is greatly reduced in both ATR-deficient human fibroblasts and HCT116 human colon cancer cells in which ATR is heterozygously mutated, whereas these proteins are phosphorylated in cells deficient for ATM and DNA-PKcs. DFO-induced apoptosis is decreased in ATR-mutant HCT116 cells, although p53 is normally activated in those cells. Expression of SMC1 S966A in which Ser966 is substituted to Ala attenuates apoptosis and phosphorylation of Chk1 at Ser317 after DFO treatment, although levels of HIF1α are not significantly changed. These results suggest that DFO induces apoptosis through the ATR–SMC1 arm of the pathway

Topics: Original Article
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles