Article thumbnail

Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with nutrients and supplements

By Hendrik Van Poppel and Bertrand Tombal


As the adult population is increasing, prostate cancer (PCa) will become a considerable health problem in the next millennium. This has raised public interest in potential chemoprevention of this disease. As PCa is extremely common and generally slow to progress it is regarded as an ideal candidate for chemoprevention. At present, the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride have been identified as preventive agents. This review describes whether selenium, alpha-tocopherol, isoflavones, lycopene green tea polyphenols, calcium, and resveratrol may be useful for decreasing the risk of PCa in men. Although encouraging results are present, some studies show negative results. Differences in study design, sample size, dose administered, and/or concentrations achieved in the body may be the reason for these inconsistencies. Today, chemopreventive agents may be appropriate for high-risk patients like those with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other high-risk groups such as patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) and negative biopsy, rapid PSA velocity, and with a family history of PCa. Although larger randomized controlled studies are needed and epidemiologic evidence should be placed in a clinical context, physicians must be aware of these preventive opportunities in PCa care. Combinations of chemopreventive agents should be carefully investigated because mechanisms of action may be additive or synergistic

Topics: Review
Publisher: Dove Medical Press
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles


  1. [Epub ahead of print].
  2. A comparison of lycopene and orchidectomy vs orchidectomy alone in the management of advanced prostate cancer.
  3. (2006). A prospective study of calcium intake and incident and fatal prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.
  4. A prospective study of dietary calcium, dairy products and prostate cancer risk (Finland).
  5. Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
  6. Associations between alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and retinol and prostate cancer survival.
  7. Calcitriol and genistein actions to inhibit the prostaglandin pathway: potential combination therapy to treat prostate cancer.
  8. (2007). Cancer incidence among Korean-American immigrants in the United States and native Koreans in South Korea. Cancer Control.
  9. (1991). Cancers of the prostate and breast among Japanese and white immigrants in Los Angeles County. Br
  10. (2008). Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by green tea catechins: two years later. A follow-up update. Eur Urol.
  11. (2006). Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study. Cancer Res.
  12. (2007). Chemoprevention of prostate cancer through dietary agents: progress and promise. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.
  13. Chemosensitization of tumors by resveratrol.
  14. Clinical pharmacology of isoflavones and its relevance for potential prevention of prostate cancer.
  15. Comparative studies of the estrogen receptors beta and alpha and the androgen receptor in normal human prostate glands, dysplasia, and in primary and metastatic carcinoma.
  16. Dairy products, calcium and phosphorus intake, and the risk of prostate cancer: results of the French prospective SU.VI.MAX (Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants) study.
  17. Dairy products, calcium intake, and risk of prostate cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.
  18. (2006). Design and progress of a trial of selenium to prevent prostate cancer among men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.
  19. (2008). Dietary genistein inhibits metastasis of human prostate cancer in mice. Cancer Res.
  20. Dietary isoflavones may protect against prostate cancer in Japanese men.
  21. (1998). Does high soy milk intake reduce prostate cancer incidence? The Adventist Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control.
  22. Effect of nutritional supplement challenge in patients with isolated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
  23. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT).
  24. Effects of soy protein isolate consumption on prostate cancer biomarkers in men with HGPIN, ASAP, and low-grade prostate cancer.
  25. Effects of tomato sauce consumption on apoptotic cell death in prostate benign hyperplasia and carcinoma.
  26. Estimated Asian adult soy protein and isoflavone intakes.
  27. (2002). Expression of prostate-specific antigen is transcriptionally regulated by genistein in prostate cancer cells. Mol Carcinog.
  28. Frequent loss of estrogen receptor-beta expression in prostate cancer.
  29. (2005). Genistein potentiates the growth inhibitory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in DU145 human prostate cancer cells: role of the direct inhibition of CYP24 enzyme activity. Mol Cell Endocrinol.
  30. (2009). Identification of a biphasic role for genistein in the regulation of prostate cancer growth and metastasis. Cancer Res.
  31. Inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase in genital skin fibroblasts and prostate tissue by dietary lignans and isoflavonoids.
  32. Inverse association of soy product intake with serum androgen and estrogen concentrations in Japanese men.
  33. Long-term dietary habits affect soy isoflavone metabolism and accumulation in prostatic fluid in caucasian men.
  34. Lycopene and soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer.
  35. (2005). Lycopene as a chemopreventive agent in the treatment of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. Urol Oncol.
  36. Lycopene inhibits disease progression in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia.
  37. (1995). Lycopene is a more potent inhibitor of human cancer cell proliferation than either alpha-carotene or beta-carotene. Nutr Cancer.
  38. (2003). Minimal effect of a low-fat/ high soy diet for asymptomatic, hormonally naive prostate cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res.
  39. Nutritional and socioeconomic factors in relation to prostate cancer mortality: a cross-national study.
  40. Oxidative DNA damage in prostate cancer patients consuming tomato sauce-based entrees as a whole-food intervention.
  41. (2003). Pharmacokinetics and safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E in healthy individuals. Clin Cancer Res.
  42. (2001). Phase II randomized clinical trial of lycopene supplementation before radical prostatectomy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.
  43. Phyto-oestrogens and cancer.
  44. Phyto-oestrogens and risk of prostate cancer in Scottish men.
  45. (2005). Phytoestrogens and prostate cancer risk. Prev Med.
  46. (2004). Plasma and dietary carotenoids, and the risk of prostate cancer: a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.
  47. Plasma and prostate phytoestrogen concentrations in prostate cancer patients after oral phytoestogen supplementation.
  48. Plasma isoflavones and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in a nested case-control study: the Japan Public Health Center.
  49. Plasma phyto-oestrogens and prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
  50. Plasma selenium, manganese superoxide dismutase, and intermediate-or high-risk prostate cancer.
  51. Prospective studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
  52. (1998). Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial.
  53. Prostate cancer in native Japanese and Japanese-American men: effects of dietary differences on prostatic tissue.
  54. Prostatic soy isoflavone concentrations exceed serum levels after dietary supplementation.
  55. (2007). Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer.
  56. Resveratrol: biological and pharmaceutical properties as anticancer molecule.
  57. Review of the factors affecting bioavailability of soy isoflavones in humans.
  58. Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial.
  59. (2007). Serum lycopene, other carotenoids, and prostate cancer risk: a nested case-control study in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.
  60. (2004). Serum phytoestrogens and prostate cancer risk in a nested case-control study among Japanese men. Cancer Sci.
  61. SOCS-3 antagonizes pro-apoptotic effects of TRAIL and resveratrol in prostate cancer cells.
  62. (2003). Soy and isoflavone consumption in relation to prostate cancer risk in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.
  63. Soy consumption and prostate cancer risk in men: a revisit of a meta-analysis.
  64. (2008). Soy isoflavone genistein in prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.
  65. Soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer.
  66. Soy isoflavonoid equol modulates the growth of benign and malignant prostatic epithelial cells in vitro.
  67. Soy product and isoflavone consumption in relation to prostate cancer in Japanese men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.
  68. supplement use, and prostate cancer risk: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial.
  69. The Alpha-Tocopherol BCCPSG. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group.
  70. (1997). The chemistry of tea flavonoids. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.
  71. The role of soy phytoestrogens in prostate cancer.
  72. (2004). The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer: a metaanalysis of observational studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.
  73. (2008). Vitamin E and selenium supplementation and risk of prostate cancer in the Vitamins and lifestyle (VITAL) study cohort. Cancer Causes Control.
  74. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of prostate and total cancer in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II randomized controlled trial.
  75. (1998). What causes prostate cancer? A brief summary of the epidemiology. Semin Cancer Biol.